A Smartphone-Based Virtual White Cane Prototype Featuring Time-of-Flight 3D Imaging



Thanks to the advancements in Time-of-Flight depth perception technologies, new approaches emerge to support visually impaired people in their everyday life. This chapter presents a novel Electronic Travel Aid prototype based on a miniaturized and smartphone integrated Time-of-Flight 3D imaging camera. The presented Electronic Travel Aid prototype robustly detects obstacles, thanks to the introduction of two innovative concepts: a combination of v disparity and RANSAC algorithm and the so-called Conservative Polar Histogram. An obstacle detection and warning rate of up to 7 FPS is achieved by the prototype. Furthermore, our prototype considerably outperforms the object detection performance compared to state-of-the-art approaches.


Virtual White Cane Time-of-Flight 3D sensing RANSAC v Disparity Conservative Polar Histogram 



This project has received funding from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 692480. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program and Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Austria, Belgium, and Slovakia.





Electronic Travel Aid


Electronic Orientation Aid


Field of View


General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit


Head-Related Transfer Function


Position Locator Device


RANdom SAmple Consensus


Color and Depth sensing Camera


Speeded Up Robust Feature


Support Vector Machine




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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Infineon Technologies Austria AGGrazAustria
  2. 2.Photonic Systems, CTR Carinthian Tech Research AGVillachAustria

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