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Doping in Sports: Legal and Other Aspects

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Part of the Europeanization and Globalization book series (EAG,volume 5)

Abstract

The issue of doping is always a very interesting topic in the modern sport. Doping is also interesting not just for medicine and biomedicine but for the law point of view. This paper firstly defines doping and gives a review of the legal framework (national and international). In the end, just to show how the issue of doping is complex, it discusses three cases decided before the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS): the Strahija case, the Ademi case and the Dobud case.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    See more Viret (2016).

  2. 2.

    Boris Labar (2009), p. 255.

  3. 3.

    Beloff et al. (2012), p. 251.

  4. 4.

    UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport. http://www.unesco.org/eri/la/convention.asp?KO=31037&language=E. Accessed 27 July 2017.

  5. 5.

    Act on Recognition of the International Convention Against Doping in Sport (Zakon o potvrđivanju Međunarodne konvencije protiv dopinga u sportu) Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia—International Covenants No. 07/07.

  6. 6.

    Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/sport/Doping/convention_en.asp. Accessed 27 July 2017.

  7. 7.

    Copenhagen Declaration on Anti-Doping in Sport (Copenhagen Declaration). https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/world-anti-doping-program/copenhagen-declaration. Accessed 28 July 2017.

  8. 8.

    Siekmann (2012), p. 331.

  9. 9.

    David (2013), p. 122.

  10. 10.

    Gardiner et al. (2012), p. 364.

  11. 11.

    Sports Act (Zakon o sportu), Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. NN 71/06, 150/08, 124/10, 124/11, 86/12, 94/13, 85/15, 19/16.

  12. 12.

    NOC of Croatia Rules on Fights against Doping (Pravila za borbu protiv dopinga Hrvatskog odlimpijskog odbora). http://www.hoo.hr/images/dokumenti/ostali-dokumenti/antidoping/Pravila_za_borbu_protiv_dopinga-HOO-prosinac-2014.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2017.

  13. 13.

    It is a specific body whose competence is the fight against doping. Firstly there was the Croatian Anti-Doping Agency (CroADA), which was established on February 22, 2007. The founder of CroADA was the Republic of Croatia and the founder’s rights and obligations on behalf of the founder were assumed by the Ministry in charge of sports. With the amendments of the Sports Act in 2010, with an agreement between Ministry in charge of sports and Ministry of Health, the Croatian Anti-doping Agency (CroADA) was adjoined to the Croatian Institute for Toxicology and a new institution got today’s name: the Croatian Institute for Toxicology and Antidoping (CITA). The structure of CITA is regulated by a statute as an institution with four departments, three of them being toxicological departments and one a department designated to battling doping: Department for Risk Assessment, Department for Documentation and Registry, Department for Accident Prevention and Department for Anti-doping. The Institute continued its work on the anti-doping and continued the CROADA’s work in conformity with international covenants and obligations. The CITA collaborate with the NOC of Croatia, the Para-Olympic Committee of Croatia, national sports federations and sports clubs. For its professional work it is subordinated to the Ministry in charge of sports.

  14. 14.

    Croatian Institute for Toxicology Regulations for the fights against doping in sports (Pravilnik za borbu protiv dopinga u sportu). http://www.hoo.hr/images/dokumenti/ostali-dokumenti/antidoping/Pravilnik-za-borbu-protiv-dopinga-2015-HZTA.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2017.

  15. 15.

    Labar (2009), p. 256.

  16. 16.

    Pajčić and Petković (2008), p. 552.

  17. 17.

    Criminal Code (Kazneni zakon), Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia No. 125/11, 144/12, 56/15, 61/15.

  18. 18.

    Pajčić and Petković (2008), pp. 573–575.

  19. 19.

    Pajčić and Petković (2008), pp. 569–576.

  20. 20.

    Pajčić and Sokanović (2010), pp. 402–403.

  21. 21.

    Vrbek (2013), pp. 204–205.

  22. 22.

    Vrbek (2013), p. 204.

  23. 23.

    The Sports Arbitration Council (CSAC) decides on the requests for extraordinary reviews of decisions made by sports federations, sports communities, sports clubs and other sports associations where other means of legal protection have been used up or are non-existent, and where the sport or issue at hand is important for the fulfilment of tasks of the NOC of Croatia as determined by the Sports Act. Sports Act, Article 52(1)(2)(4).

  24. 24.

    Smokvina (2017), pp. 109–114.

  25. 25.

    The Sports Arbitration Tribunal (CAS Croatia) decides on the requests of such parties as have recognised the competence of this court to rule on disputes related to the performance of sporting activities, as well as the rights they can freely exercise, unless the law determines that decisions on certain kinds of disputes can only be made by the regular court of law.Sports Act, Article 52(1)(3).

  26. 26.

    Momčinović (2009), p. 301.

  27. 27.

    CFF Statute. http://hns-cff.hr/files/documents/2384/HNS%20Statutes%202016_eng.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2017.

  28. 28.

    CFF Disciplinary Code. http://hns-cff.hr/files/documents/8316/Disciplinski%20pravilnik%202017.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2017.

  29. 29.

    FIFA Anti-doping Regulations. http://resources.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/administration/02/49/28/61/circularno.1458-fifaanti-dopingregulations_neutral.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2017.

  30. 30.

    CFF formulary contracts. http://hns-cff.hr/hns/propisi-i-dokumenti/. Accessed 10 June 2017.

  31. 31.

    Anderson (2010), p. 123.

  32. 32.

    I.e. in tennis in the period 2003–2007 for the majority (68%) of the 40 doping cases the sanctioning bodies ruled that there was no intent to enhance performance or (no) fault or negligence, but nevertheless sanctions were applied, with significant negative impact for the players concerning their notoriety, income and career.

  33. 33.

    Kayser (2011), pp. 85–86.

  34. 34.

    See more in detail in Anderson (2013).

  35. 35.

    Human chorionic gonadropin (hCG) in males helps to stimulate the production of male hormones such as testosterone and athletes may take hCG to increase the ability of their body to produce testosterone and prevent atrophy of the testicles that results from taking large doses of anabolic steroids. Halchin (2006), p. 28.

  36. 36.

    CAS 2003/A/507, Marko Strahija v FINA, Award of 9 Feb 2004.

  37. 37.

    Erceg and Fattorini (2011), p. 189.

  38. 38.

    CAS 2016/A/4676, Arijan Ademi v UEFA, Award of 24 Mar 2017.

  39. 39.

    Greene and Kasalo (2017).

  40. 40.

    CAS 2015/A/4163, Nikša Dobud v. FINA, Award of 15 Mar 2016.

  41. 41.

    CAS 2015/A/4163, Nikša Dobud v. FINA (para. 97).

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Smokvina, V. (2019). Doping in Sports: Legal and Other Aspects. In: Bodiroga-Vukobrat, N., Rukavina, D., Pavelić, K., Sander, G. (eds) Personalized Medicine in Healthcare Systems. Europeanization and Globalization, vol 5. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16465-2_21

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16465-2_21

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