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Democracy and Despotism in Tribal Society

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Abstract

Tribal democracy exhibited a clan council and elected headmen. The headmen (elected by women where there were matrilineal clans, as amongst the Iroquois Tribes) met at a central tribal council, surrounded by a warriors’ assembly. Unanimity was demanded in all decision-making. The war chiefs and the Shaman had power, but were restrained by the clan headman.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States, and Nation-States.

  2. 2.

    Ibid (Horticulture and Matriclans).

  3. 3.

    Ibid (Herding and patriclans).

  4. 4.

    Ibid (women vote in matriclans).

  5. 5.

    Ibid (Norse Tribes; women could not vote).

  6. 6.

    Ibid; see also, Morgan, Ancient Society.

  7. 7.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States, and Nation-States (Norse Tribes, the Law Speaker) see also, the Icelandic Sagas.

  8. 8.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States and Nation-States (The “unanimity principle” of Tribes).

  9. 9.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States and Nation-States.

  10. 10.

    The Icelandic Sagas, edited by Orlinorfur Thornsen, London, Penguin, Deluxe edition, 1997.

  11. 11.

    Ibid.

  12. 12.

    Ibid.

  13. 13.

    Ibid (Kingship in Norway: Harold).

  14. 14.

    Azar Gat, War in Civilization.

  15. 15.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States and Nation-States (Spartans) two kinds.

  16. 16.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States and Nation-States (Spartans’ Ephron’s) see also, Glassman, Rome’s’ Tribunes (in Sparta Section); see also, Polybius, Early Roman History, and Bk VI; London Penguin 2000; see also Titus Livins, Early Roman History, London, Penguin paperback 2002.

  17. 17.

    Icelandic Sagas (King Harold).

  18. 18.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States and Nation-States (Swiss and Dutch).

  19. 19.

    Glassman, Origins of Democracy in Tribes, City-States and Nation-States (tribal shaman).

  20. 20.

    G.M. Harley, Poro Cults of West Africa, and, Masks as Agents of Social Control, N.C., Duke University Press, 1968.

  21. 21.

    Bible, Prophets, Oxford Study Bible.

  22. 22.

    Bible, Book of Ezra and Nehemiah, Oxford Study Bible.

  23. 23.

    Josephus, Roman-Jewish War; Jewish Antiquities; London, Penguin paperback 1953.

  24. 24.

    The Christian Gospels’ of Mark, Matthew, Luke and John, Oxford Study Bible.

  25. 25.

    Confucius, The Analects, N.Y. Amazon paperback, 2005.

  26. 26.

    Aristotle, Politics (on Kingship).

  27. 27.

    Bible, Book of Samuel, Oxford Study Bible.

  28. 28.

    John Locke, First Treatise on Civil Government, Oxford, Oxford University, Press, 1952.

  29. 29.

    Aristotle, Politics (on Kingship).

  30. 30.

    Henri Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press 1948.

  31. 31.

    Confucius, The Analects.

  32. 32.

    Ibid.

  33. 33.

    Max Weber, The Religion of China, N.Y. Free Press, 1953.

  34. 34.

    Ronald M. Glassman and William Swatos, Jr., Charisma, History and Social Structure (“Manufactured Charisma’), N.Y. Praeger, 1981.

  35. 35.

    Max Weber, Economy and Society “Legitimate Domination,” Translated by Claus Wittich and Guenther Roth, N.Y. Bedminster Press, 1971.

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Glassman, R.M. (2019). Democracy and Despotism in Tribal Society. In: The Future of Democracy. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16111-8_2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16111-8_2

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