Vitamin K and the Immune System



Vitamin K is one of the fat-soluble vitamins with two natural types, phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone (K2), and one synthetic form named menadione (vitamin K3). Vitamin K plays key roles in different physiological functions such as blood coagulation, bone metabolism, and the regulation of some enzyme systems. It can also act as a cofactor for some plasma proteins, thereby affecting immune and inflammatory responses particularly mediated by T cells. Studies have found links between vitamin K levels and diseases, including inflammatory diseases and cancer. However, there is limited information about how the immune and inflammatory responses can be influenced by vitamin K. Further studies are necessary to clarify the roles of vitamin K on the immune system.


Immunity Inflammation T cells Vitamin K 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Dietetics and Nutrition Experts Team (DiNET), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN)TehranIran

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