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Obesity and Immunity

Abstract

Obesity is a condition resulting from fat accumulation, which is related to many chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, particularly cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue (AT) is a storage organ, which regulates energy mobilization by circulating lipids according to energy status. In obesity-related inflammation, different immune cells including monocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes may infiltrate into the AT, resulting in the secretion of adipocytokines by both adipocytes and infiltrated immune cells. Loss of immune inhibitory mechanisms results in tissue inflammation contributing to obesity and related complications. Adipocytokines are special brain hormones which regulate appetite and nutrient metabolism. They have important role in immunity and inflammation, and studies have indicated that diet-induced obesity (DIO) can increase the amount and function of AT via the production of metabolically active cytokines and hormones especially in the white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle through bidirectional cross talk between these two organs. Adipocytes and myocytes in obese patients release pro-inflammatory factors which cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity in myocytes, adipocytes, and hepatocytes.

Keywords

  • Adipokines
  • Cytokines
  • Immunity
  • Myokines
  • Obesity

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Sabour, H. (2019). Obesity and Immunity. In: Mahmoudi, M., Rezaei, N. (eds) Nutrition and Immunity. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16073-9_18

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