Advertisement

Mineral Carbonation for Carbon Capture and Utilization

  • Tze Yuen Yeo
  • Jie BuEmail author
Chapter
  • 670 Downloads

Abstract

The appeal of mineral carbonation (MC) as a process technology for scalable and long-term CO2 reduction, is that it is a solution that has the sequestration capacity to match the amount of CO2 emitted from energy generation and industrial activities [1, 2, 3]. Many inorganic materials such as minerals [4, 5], incineration ash [6, 7], concrete [8, 9] and industrial residues [10, 11] are potentially huge sinks for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. These materials are typically abundant sources of alkaline and alkaline-earth metal oxides, which can react naturally with CO2 to form inorganic carbonates and bicarbonates. In addition, their products are thermodynamically stable and relatively inert at ambient conditions. On paper, MC should be able to fully sequester all anthropogenic CO2 emissions, since the abundance of magnesium and calcium atoms on Earth far exceeds the total amount of carbon atoms [12, 13]. However, despite the apparently favorable pre-conditions, we still observe a net accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere because the rates of reaction to form (bi)carbonates in nature are too slow compared to the current rate at which CO2 is being emitted [14, 15]. If left to their own devices, thousands of years are needed to achieve any substantial sequestration of CO2 [16]. This is clearly not rapid enough to solve the pressing problem of climate change that is already affecting us now. Therefore there is a need to employ mineral carbonation as an artificial method to accelerate the rates of CO2 sequestration. In this chapter, we will take a look into the chemistry and thermodynamics of mineral carbonation and discuss some of the main obstacles to large scale MC implementation. Additionally, we highlight the types of starting materials from which basic alkaline-earth metal oxides can be obtained and discuss how their abundance and properties affect MC performance. We will also give a short review of current research in the area to develop MC into viable and economic processes, with some focus on the main categories of process designs and their working principles. We will then look at MC from a techno-economic standpoint and assess the opportunities to integrate MC into the existing industrial and environmental landscape. Lastly, we conclude the chapter with a hypothetical scenario of MC deployment in Singapore, an economically developed but land-scarce country under threat by rising sea levels.

References

  1. 1.
    Lackner KS (2003) A guide to CO2 sequestration. Science 300(5626):1677–1678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huijgen WJJ, Comans RNJ (2003) Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Literature review. Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN2003Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zevenhoven R, Eloneva S, Teir S (2006) Chemical fixation of CO2 in carbonates: routes to valuable products and long-term storage. Catal Today 115(1–4):73–79Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geerlings H, Zevenhoven R (2013) CO2 mineralization—bridge between storage and utilization of CO2. Ann Rev Chem Biomol Eng 4(1):103–117Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sanna A, Maroto-Valer MM (2017) CO2 sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonationGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rendek E, Ducom G, Germain P (2006) Carbon dioxide sequestration in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash. J Hazard Mater 128(1):73–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wee J-H (2013) A review on carbon dioxide capture and storage technology using coal fly ash. Appl Energy 106:143–151Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mo L, Panesar DK (2013) Accelerated carbonation—a potential approach to sequester CO2 in cement paste containing slag and reactive MgO. Cem Concr Compos 43:69–77Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xi F et al (2016) Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation. Nat Geosci 9:880Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Si C, Ma Y, Lin C (2013) Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance. J Hazard Mater 244–245:54–59Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kirchofer A, Becker A, Brandt A, Wilcox J (2013) CO2 mitigation potential of mineral carbonation with industrial alkalinity sources in the United States. Environ Sci Technol 47(13):7548–7554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mcdonough WF, Teisseyre ER, Majewski E (2000) Earthquake thermodynamics and phase transformations in the Earth’s interiorGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McDonough WF, Sun S-S (1995) The composition of the Earth. Chem Geol 120(3–4):223–253Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aresta M (2010) Carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock. WileyGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berner RA (2003) The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition. Nature 426(6964):323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    White AF (2003) 5.05—natural weathering rates of silicate minerals A2—Holland, Heinrich D. In: Turekian KK (ed) Treatise on geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, pp 133–168Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aresta M, Dibenedetto A, Angelini A (2013) The changing paradigm in CO2 utilization. J CO2 Utilization, 3:65–73Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    White AF, Brantley SL (2003) The effect of time on the weathering of silicate minerals: why do weathering rates differ in the laboratory and field? Chem Geol 202(3–4):479–506Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yuen YT, Sharratt PN, Jie B (2016) Carbon dioxide mineralization process design and evaluation: concepts, case studies, and considerations. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(22):22309–22330Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Taulis M (2012) GWCarb v1. 0: carbonate speciation toolGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stumm W, Morgan, JJ (2012) Aquatic chemistry: chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. WileyGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wanninkhof R et al (2013) Global ocean carbon uptake: magnitude, variability and trends. Biogeosciences 10(3):1983–2000Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zeebe RE, Zachos JC, Caldeira K, Tyrrell T (2008) Carbon emissions and acidification. Science 321(5885):51–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Orr JC et al (2005) Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437:681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wen N, Brooker MH (1995) Ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and ammonium carbamate equilibria: a Raman study. The J Phys Chem 99(1):359–368Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao Y, Zhu G (2007) Thermal decomposition kinetics and mechanism of magnesium bicarbonate aqueous solution. Hydrometallurgy 89(3–4):217–223Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Keener TC, Frazier GC, Davis WT (1985) Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate. Chem Eng Commun 33(1–4):93–105Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Casey WH, Banfield JF, Westrich HR, McLaughlin L (1993) What do dissolution experiments tell us about natural weathering? Chem Geol 105(1–3):1–15Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oelkers EH, Gislason SR, Matter J (2008) Mineral carbonation of CO2. Elements 4(5):333–337Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dreybrodt W, Lauckner J, Zaihua L, Svensson U, Buhmann D (1996) The kinetics of the reaction CO2+ H2O→ H++ HCO3− as one of the rate limiting steps for the dissolution of calcite in the system H2O–CO2–CaCO3. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60(18):3375–3381Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Duan Z, Sun R (2003) An improved model calculating CO2 solubility in pure water and aqueous NaCl solutions from 273 to 533 K and from 0 to 2000 bar. Chem Geol 193(3–4):257–271Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cullinane JT, Rochelle GT (2004) Carbon dioxide absorption with aqueous potassium carbonate promoted by piperazine. Chem Eng Sci 59(17):3619–3630Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bishnoi S, Rochelle GT (2000) Absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous piperazine: reaction kinetics, mass transfer and solubility. Chem Eng Sci 55(22):5531–5543Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ma’mun S, Svendsen HF, Hoff KA, Juliussen O (2007) Selection of new absorbents for carbon dioxide capture. Energy Convers Manag 48(1):251–258Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Astarita G, Savage DW, Longo JM (1981) Promotion of CO2 mass transfer in carbonate solutions. Chem Eng Sci 36(3):581–588Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Xie Z, Walther JV (1994) Dissolution stoichiometry and adsorption of alkali and alkaline earth elements to the acid-reacted wollastonite surface at 25 C. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58(12):2587–2598Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brantley, SL (2008) Kinetics of mineral dissolution. Kinetics of water-rock interaction. Springer, pp 151–210Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Teir S, Revitzer H, Eloneva S, Fogelholm C-J, Zevenhoven R (2007) Dissolution of natural serpentinite in mineral and organic acids. Int J Miner Process 83(1–2):36–46Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Apostolidis C, Distin P (1978) The kinetics of the sulphuric acid leaching of nickel and magnesium from reduction roasted serpentine. Hydrometallurgy 3(2):181–196Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sanna A, Uibu M, Caramanna G, Kuusik R, Maroto-Valer M (2014) A review of mineral carbonation technologies to sequester CO2. Chem Soc Rev 43(23):8049–8080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hemmati A, Shayegan J, Bu J, Yeo TY, Sharratt P (2014) Process optimization for mineral carbonation in aqueous phase. Int J Miner Process 130:20–27Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hemmati A, Shayegan J, Sharratt P, Yeo TY, Bu J (2014) Solid products characterization in a multi-step mineralization process. Chem Eng J 252:210–219Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zevenhoven R, Slotte M, Koivisto E, Erlund R (2017) Serpentinite carbonation process routes using ammonium sulfate and integration in industry. Energy Technol 5(6):945–954Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sanna A, Steel L, Maroto-Valer MM (2017) Carbon dioxide sequestration using NaHSO4 and NaOH: a dissolution and carbonation optimisation study. J Environ Manage 189:84–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gerdemann SJ, O’Connor WK, Dahlin DC, Penner LR, Rush H (2007) Ex situ aqueous mineral carbonation. Environ Sci Technol 41(7):2587–2593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ghacham AB, Cecchi E, Pasquier L-C, Blais J-F, Mercier G (2015) CO2 sequestration using waste concrete and anorthosite tailings by direct mineral carbonation in gas–solid–liquid and gas–solid routes. J Environ Manage 163:70–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith JM (1950) Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics. ACS PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL Jr, Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy 20(11):1153–1170Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zevenhoven R, Kavaliauskaite I (2010) Mineral carbonation for long-term CO2 storage: an exergy analysis. Int J Thermodyn 7(1):23–31Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huijgen WJ, Ruijg GJ, Comans RN, Witkamp G-J (2006) Energy consumption and net CO2 sequestration of aqueous mineral carbonation. Ind Eng Chem Res 45(26):9184–9194Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Goff F, Lackner K (1998) Carbon dioxide sequestering using ultramafic rocks. Environ Geosci 5(3):89–101Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alexander E, Wildman W, Lynn W (1985) Ultramafic (serpentinitic) mineralogy class 1. Mineral classification of soils, no. mineralclassifi, pp 135–146Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Matter JM, Kelemen PB (2009) Permanent storage of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs by mineral carbonation. Nat Geosci 2(12):837Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Moody JB (1976) Serpentinization: a review. Lithos 9(2):125–138Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rinaudo C, Gastaldi D, Belluso E (2003) Characterization of chrysotile, antigorite and lizardite by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The Can Mineral 41(4):883–890Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Groppo C, Rinaudo C, Cairo S, Gastaldi D, Compagnoni R (2006) Micro-Raman spectroscopy for a quick and reliable identification of serpentine minerals from ultramafics. Eur J Mineral 18(3):319–329Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Evans BW (2004) The serpentinite multisystem revisited: chrysotile is metastable. Int Geol Rev 46(6):479–506Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lacinska AM et al (2016) Acid-dissolution of antigorite, chrysotile and lizardite for ex situ carbon capture and storage by mineralisation. Chem Geol 437:153–169Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Farhang F, Rayson M, Brent G, Hodgins T, Stockenhuber M, Kennedy E (2017) Insights into the dissolution kinetics of thermally activated serpentine for CO2 sequestration. Chem Eng J 330:1174–1186Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Benhelal E et al (2018) Study on mineral carbonation of heat activated lizardite at pilot and laboratory scale. J CO2 Utilization 26:230–238Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rashid MI et al (2018) ACEME: direct aqueous mineral carbonation of dunite rock. Environ Prog Sustain EnergyGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dlugogorski BZ, Balucan RD (2014) Dehydroxylation of serpentine minerals: Implications for mineral carbonation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 31:353–367Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yadav VS, Prasad M, Khan J, Amritphale S, Singh M, Raju C (2010) Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud. J Hazard Mater 176(1–3):1044–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bonenfant D et al (2008) CO2 sequestration by aqueous red mud carbonation at ambient pressure and temperature. Ind Eng Chem Res 47(20):7617–7622Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Huijgen WJ, Witkamp G-J, Comans RN (2005) Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation. Environ Sci Technol 39(24):9676–9682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Santos RM, Van Bouwel J, Vandevelde E, Mertens G, Elsen J, Van Gerven T (2013) Accelerated mineral carbonation of stainless steel slags for CO2 storage and waste valorization: effect of process parameters on geochemical properties. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 17:32–45Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dri M, Sanna A, Maroto-Valer MM (2013) Dissolution of steel slag and recycled concrete aggregate in ammonium bisulphate for CO2 mineral carbonation. Fuel Process Technol 113:114–122Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Meima JA, van der Weijden RD, Eighmy TT, Comans RN (2002) Carbonation processes in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and their effect on the leaching of copper and molybdenum. Appl Geochem 17(12):1503–1513Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lin WY, Heng KS, Sun X, Wang J-Y (2015) Accelerated carbonation of different size fractions of MSW IBA and the effect on leaching. Waste Manag 41:75–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lin WY, Heng KS, Sun X, Wang J-Y (2015) Influence of moisture content and temperature on degree of carbonation and the effect on Cu and Cr leaching from incineration bottom ash. Waste Manag 43:264–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pan S-Y, Chang E, Chiang P-C (2012) CO2 capture by accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes: a review on its principles and applications. Aerosol Air Qual Res 12(5):770–791Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bobicki ER, Liu Q, Xu Z, Zeng H (2012) Carbon capture and storage using alkaline industrial wastes. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38(2):302–320Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Paramguru R, Rath P, Misra V (2004) Trends in red mud utilization–a review. Mineral Process Extr Metall Rev 26(1):1–29Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shi C (2004) Steel slag—its production, processing, characteristics, and cementitious properties. J Mater Civ Eng 16(3):230–236Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Papadakis VG, Vayenas CG, Fardis MN (1991) Fundamental modeling and experimental investigation of concrete carbonation. Mater J 88(4):363–373Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Meima JA, Comans RN (1999) The leaching of trace elements from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash at different stages of weathering. Appl Geochem 14(2):159–171Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baciocchi R et al (2010) Accelerated carbonation of different size fractions of bottom ash from RDF incineration. Waste Manag 30(7):1310–1317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Li X, Bertos MF, Hills CD, Carey PJ, Simon S (2007) Accelerated carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ashes. Waste Manag 27(9):1200–1206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Olajire AA (2013) A review of mineral carbonation technology in sequestration of CO2. J Petrol Sci Eng 109:364–392Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    O’Connor W, Dahlin D, Rush, G, Gerdemann, S, Penner, L, Nilsen D (2005) Aqueous mineral carbonation. Albany Research Center: Albany, ORGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    O’Connor WK, Dahlin DC, Rush G, Gerdemann SJ, Penner L (2004) Energy and economic considerations for ex-situ and aqueous mineral carbonation. Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, ORGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    O’Connor WK, Dahlin DC, Rush G, Dahlin CL, Collins WK (2001) Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation: process mineralogy of feed and products. Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, ORGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    O’Connor WK, Dahlin DC, Nilsen DN, Walters RP, Turner PC (2000) Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation. Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, ORGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Geerlings JJC, Wesker E (2010) Process for sequestration of carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Geerlings JJC, Van Mossel GAF, Veen BCMIT (2010) Process for sequestration of carbon dioxide. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Werner M, Hariharan S, Mazzotti M (2014) Flue gas CO2 mineralization using thermally activated serpentine: from single-to double-step carbonation. Phys Chem Chemcal Phys 16(45):24978–24993Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sun Y, Yao M-S, Zhang J-P, Yang G (2011) Indirect CO2 mineral sequestration by steelmaking slag with NH4Cl as leaching solution. Chem Eng J 173(2):437–445Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bai P, Sharratt P, Yeo TY, Bu J (2011) Production of nanostructured magnesium carbonates from serpentine: implication for flame retardant application. J Nanoeng Nanomanuf 1(3):272–279Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bu J, Yeo TY, Sharratt P (2018) Method of producing metal carbonate from an ultramafic rock material. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Alexander G, Maroto-Valer MM, Gafarova-Aksoy P (2007) Evaluation of reaction variables in the dissolution of serpentine for mineral carbonation. Fuel 86(1–2):273–281Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wang X, Maroto-Valer MM (2011) Dissolution of serpentine using recyclable ammonium salts for CO2 mineral carbonation. Fuel 90(3):1229–1237Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Littau KA, Torres FE (2013) System and method for recovery of CO2 by aqueous carbonate flue gas capture and high efficiency bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shuto D et al (2015) CO2 fixation process with waste cement powder via regeneration of alkali and acid by electrodialysis: effect of operation conditions. Ind Eng Chem Res 54(25):6569–6577Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Van der Zee S, Zeman F (2016) Production of carbon negative precipitated calcium carbonate from waste concrete. The Can J Chem Eng 94(11):2153–2159Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Naraharisetti PK, Yeo TY, Bu J (2019) New classification of CO2 mineralization processes and economic evaluation. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 99:220–233Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Liu Q, Maroto-Valer MM, Sanna A (2017) Mineral carbonation technology overview. CO2 sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation: World Scientific, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fagerlund J, Nduagu E, Romão I, Zevenhoven R (2012) CO2 fixation using magnesium silicate minerals part 1: process description and performance. Energy 41(1):184–191Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Romão I, Nduagu E, Fagerlund J, Gando-Ferreira LM, Zevenhoven R (2012) CO2 fixation using magnesium silicate minerals. Part 2: energy efficiency and integration with iron-and steelmaking. Energy 41(1):203–211Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Highfield J, Lim H, Fagerlund J, Zevenhoven R (2012) Activation of serpentine for CO2 mineralization by flux extraction of soluble magnesium salts using ammonium sulfate. RSC Adv 2(16):6535–6541Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mirjafari P, Asghari K, Mahinpey N (2007) Investigating the application of enzyme carbonic anhydrase for CO2 sequestration purposes. Ind Eng Chem Res 46(3):921–926Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Power IM, Harrison AL, Dipple GM, Southam G (2013) Carbon sequestration via carbonic anhydrase facilitated magnesium carbonate precipitation. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 16:145–155Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Jo BH, Kim IG, Seo JH, Kang DG, Cha HJ (2013) Engineered Escherichia coli with periplasmic carbonic anhydrase as a biocatalyst for CO2 sequestration. Appl Environ Microbiol pp AEM. 02400-13Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Power IM, Harrison AL, Dipple GM (2016) Accelerating mineral carbonation using carbonic anhydrase. Environ Sci Technol 50(5):2610–2618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Seo S, Perez GA, Tewari K, Comas X, Kim M (2018) Catalytic activity of nickel nanoparticles stabilized by adsorbing polymers for enhanced carbon sequestration. Sci Rep 8(1):11786PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ramsden JJ, Sokolov IJ, Malik DJ (2018) Questioning the catalytic effect of Ni nanoparticles on CO2 hydration and the very need of such catalysis for CO2 capture by mineralization from aqueous solution. Chem Eng Sci 175:162–167Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hu G, Xiao Z, Smith K, Kentish S, Stevens G, Connal LA (2018) A carbonic anhydrase inspired temperature responsive polymer based catalyst for accelerating carbon capture. Chem Eng J 332:556–562Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zevenhoven R, Virtanen M (2017) CO2 mineral sequestration integrated with water-gas shift reaction. Energy 141:2484–2489Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chein R-Y, Yu C-T (2017) Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of water-gas shift reaction using syngases-effect of CO2 and H2S contents. Energy 141:1004–1018Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Naraharisetti PK, Yeo TY, Bu J (2017) Factors influencing CO2 and energy penalties of CO2 mineralization processes. ChemPhysChem 18(22):3189–3202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    UEPA (2014) Emission factors for greenhouse gas inventories. Stationary combustion emission factors. US Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Balucan RD, Dlugogorski BZ, Kennedy EM, Belova IV, Murch GE (2013) Energy cost of heat activating serpentinites for CO2 storage by mineralisation. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 17:225–239Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Perry JH (1950) Chemical engineers’ handbook. ACS PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    David J, Herzog H The cost of carbon capture. In: Fifth international conference on greenhouse gas control technologies, Cairns, Australia, 2000, pp 13–16Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    USEPA (1 November 2018) GHG emissions factors hub. Available: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-03/documents/emission-factors_mar_2018_0.pdf
  115. 115.
    Rezai A, Foley DK, Taylor L (2012) Global warming and economic externalities. Econ Theor 49(2):329–351Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wang Q, Chen X (2015) Energy policies for managing China’s carbon emission. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 50:470–479Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pezzey JC, Jotzo F, Quiggin J (2008) Fiddling while carbon burns: why climate policy needs pervasive emission pricing as well as technology promotion. Aust J Agric Resour Econ 52(1):97–110Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Damen K, Faaij A, van Bergen F, Gale J, Lysen E (2005) Identification of early opportunities for CO2 sequestration—worldwide screening for CO2-EOR and CO2-ECBM projects. Energy 30(10):1931–1952Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mendelevitch R (2014) The role of CO2-EOR for the development of a CCTS infrastructure in the North Sea Region: a techno-economic model and applications. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 20:132–159Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Aresta M, Dibenedetto A, Angelini A (2013) Catalysis for the valorization of exhaust carbon: from CO2 to chemicals, materials, and fuels. Technological use of CO2. Chem Rev 114(3):1709–1742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Song C (2006) Global challenges and strategies for control, conversion and utilization of CO2 for sustainable development involving energy, catalysis, adsorption and chemical processing. Catal Today 115(1–4):2–32Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sinnott R (1999) Coulson & Richardson’s chemical enginering: volume 6/chemical engineering design. Elsevier Butterworth HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lieberman MB (1984) The learning curve and pricing in the chemical processing industries. Rand J Econ 15(2):213–228Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tribe M, Alpine R (1986) Scale economies and the “0.6 rule”. Eng Costs Prod Econ 10(1):271–278Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Whitesides RW (2005) Process equipment cost estimating by ratio and proportion. Course notes, PDH Course G, vol 127Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Anderson J (2009) Determining manufacturing costs. CEP, pp 27–31Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Liu W et al (2018) Optimising the recovery of high-value-added ammonium alum during mineral carbonation of blast furnace slag. J Alloys CompdGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Pasquier L-C, Kemache N, Mocellin J, Blais J-F, Mercier G (2018) Waste concrete valorization; aggregates and mineral carbonation feedstock production. Geosciences 8(9):342Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chiang P-C, Pan S-Y (2017) Aggregates and high value products. Carbon dioxide mineralization and utilization. Springer, pp 327–334Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Yeo TY, Bu J (2017) MC process scale and product applications. CO2 sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation: World Scientific, pp 133–165Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Di Maria F, Micale C, Sordi A, Cirulli G, Marionni M (2013) Urban mining: quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste. Waste Manag 33(12):2594–2599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tunsu C, Petranikova M, Gergorić M, Ekberg C, Retegan T (2015) Reclaiming rare earth elements from end-of-life products: a review of the perspectives for urban mining using hydrometallurgical unit operations. Hydrometallurgy 156:239–258Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Cossu R, Salieri V, Bisinella, V (2012) Urban mining: a global cycle approach to resource recovery from solid waste. CISA PublicationGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    USGS (1 November 2018) 2015 Minerals Yearbook (Silica). Available: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/silica/myb1-2015-silic.pdf
  135. 135.
    Bai P, Sharratt P, Yeo TY, Bu J (2014) A facile route to preparation of high purity nanoporous silica from acid-leached residue of serpentine. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 14(9):6915–6922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    USGS 2015 Minerals Yearbook (Iron Oxide Pigments). Available: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity//iron_oxide/myb1-2015-feoxi.pdf
  137. 137.
    Ashok J, Das S, Yeo T, Dewangan N, Kawi S (2018) Incinerator bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste as a potential catalytic support for biomass tar reforming. Waste Manag 82:249–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    USGS (1 November 2018) 2015 Minerals yearbook (magnesium compounds). Available: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/magnesium/myb1-2015-mgcom.pdf
  139. 139.
    USGS (1 November 2018) 2015 Minerals yearbook (lime). Available: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/lime/myb1-2015-lime.pdf
  140. 140.
    Khoo HH et al (2011) Carbon capture and mineralization in Singapore: preliminary environmental impacts and costs via LCA. Ind Eng Chem Res 50(19):11350–11357Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Lai S, Loke LH, Hilton MJ, Bouma TJ, Todd PA (2015) The effects of urbanisation on coastal habitats and the potential for ecological engineering: a Singapore case study. Ocean Coast Manag 103:78–85Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wang T, Belle I, Hassler U (2015) Modelling of Singapore’s topographic transformation based on DEMs. Geomorphology 231:367–375Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kog Y-C (2006) Environmental management and conflict in Southeast Asia–Land reclamation and its political impactGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Franke M (2014) When one country’s land gain is another country’s land loss…: the social, ecological and economic dimensions of sand extraction in the context of world-systems analysis exemplified by Singapore’s sand imports. Working Paper, Institute for International Political Economy BerlinGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Torres A, Brandt J, Lear K, Liu J (2017) A looming tragedy of the sand commons. Science 357(6355):970–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Gavriletea M (2017) Environmental impacts of sand exploitation. Analysis of sand market. Sustainability 9(7):1118Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Finenko A, Cheah L (2016) Temporal CO2 emissions associated with electricity generation: Case study of Singapore. Energy Policy 93:70–79Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lean HH, Smyth R (2010) CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN. Appl Energy 87(6):1858–1864Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Chan JKH (2016) The ethics of working with wicked urban waste problems: the case of Singapore’s Semakau Landfill. Lands Urban Plan 154:123–131Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Deng Y, Li Z, Quigley JM (2012) Economic returns to energy-efficient investments in the housing market: evidence from Singapore. Reg Sci Urban Econ 42(3):506–515Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Chung W, Hui Y, Lam YM (2006) Benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. Appl Energy 83(1):1–14Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kannan R, Leong K, Osman R, Ho H (2007) Life cycle energy, emissions and cost inventory of power generation technologies in Singapore. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 11(4):702–715Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Allcott H, Greenstone M (2012) Is there an energy efficiency gap? J Econ Perspect 26(1):3–28Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, A*STARJurong Island, SingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations