Drag King Cultures



This second chapter introduces Sydney’s drag king scene as both a critical object and a case study into a social scene for lesbian and queer women during the first two decades of the 21st century. By animating the historical and contemporary dimensions of drag against the longer tradition of performing masculinity, this chapter documents some of the complexities in specifying a universal drag king culture. Following recent work in human geography, this chapter then charts the temporal and spatial coordinates of Sydney’s local networked series of drag king events to outline the mobile conditions that made the scene’s emergence possible. Overall, this second chapter repositions the performance of gender through an engagement with the investments made in scene sites and sociality.


  1. Adler, Sy, and Johanna Brenner. 1992. “Gender and Space: Lesbians and Gay Men in the City.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 16 (1):24–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. “A Girl Can Be a King, Just Drag It Out of Her.” 2011. The Age. 26 June. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  3. Aldrich, Robert. 2004. “Homosexuality and the City: An Historical Overview.” Urban Studies 41 (9):1719–1737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, Ashley A., and Kimberly Kelly. 2016. “Live Like a King, Y’all: Gender, Negotiation and the Performance of Masculinity Among Southern Kings.” Sexualities 19 (1/2):46–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbé i Serra, Alba. 2014. “Identity and Performance: An Ethnographic Approach to Drag King Performance Through a Corporeal Itinerary.” Journal of Language and Sexuality 3 (2):261–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnett, Joshua Trey, and Corey W. Johnson. 2013. “We Are All Royalty: Narrative Comparisons of a Drag Queen and King.” Journal of Leisure Research 45 (5):667–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beemyn, Brett, ed. 1997. Creating a Place for Ourselves: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Histories. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, David, and Jon Binnie. 2000. The Sexual Citizen: Queer Politics and Beyond. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  9. Bell, David, and Jon Binnie. 2004. “Authenticating Queer Space: Citizenship, Urbanism and Governance.” Urban Studies 41 (9):1807–1820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell, David, and Gill Valentine. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities. Translated by Gill Valentine and David Feb Bell. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Birmingham, John. 2000. Leviathan: The Unauthorised Biography of Sydney. Sydney: A Vintage Book. Original edition, 1999.Google Scholar
  12. Bradford, K. 2002. “Grease Cowboy Fever; or, the Making of Johnny T.” In The Drag King Anthology, edited by Kathleen LeBesco, Donna Jean Troka, and Jean Bobby Noble, 15–30. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  13. Braziel, Jana Evans. 2005. “Dréd’s Drag Kinging of Race, Sex, and the Queering of the American Racial Machine-Desirante.” Women and Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory 15 (2) (30):161–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brookey, Robert Alan, and Robert Westerfelhaus. 2001. “Pistols and Petticoats, Piety and Purity: To Wong Foo, the Queering of the American Monomyth, and the Marginalizing Discourse of Deification.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 18 (2):141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, Gavin. 2006. “Cosmopolitan Camouflage: (Post-)Gay Space in Spitalfields.” In Cosmopolitan Urbanism, 142–157. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, Gavin. 2008. “Urban (Homo)sexualities: Ordinary Cities and Ordinary Sexualities.” Geography Compass 2 (4):1215–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Browne, Kath. 2004. “Genderism and the Bathroom Problem: (Re)materialising Sexed Sites, (Re)creating Sexed Bodies.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 11 (3):331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Browne, Kath. 2006. “Challenging Queer Geographies.” Antipode 38 (5):885–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Browne, Kath. 2007. “Lesbian Geographies.” Social & Cultural Geography 8 (1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Browne, Kath. 2009. “Womyn’s Separatist Spaces: Rethinking Spaces of Difference and Exclusion.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34 (4):541–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Browne, K., and C. J. Nash 2010. Queer Methods and Methodologies: Intersecting Queer Theories and Social Science Research. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  22. Browne, Kath, and Esuarda Ferreira, ed. 2015. Lesbian Geographies: Gender, Place and Power. Surrey and Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  23. Browne, Kath, Jason Lim, and Gavin Brown, ed. 2007. Geographies of Sexualities: Theory, Practices and Politics. Hamphire and Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  24. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Butler, Judith. 1993. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Caceda, Eden. 2015. “Inside Drag Culture with Sexy Galexy”. Hijacked, 13 January. Accessed 27 February 2016.
  27. Carroll, Jessica, and John Connell. 2000. “‘You Gotta Love This City’: The Whitlams and Inner Sydney.” Australian Geographer 31 (2):141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castells, Manuel. 1983. The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Caudwell, Jayne. 2007. “Queering the Field? The Complexities of Sexuality within a Lesbian-Identified Football Team in England.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 14 (2):183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cefai, Sarah. 2014. “Feeling and Production of Lesbian Space in the L Word.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 21 (5):650–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Collins, Alan. 2004. “Sexual Dissidence, Enterprise and Assimilation: Bedfellows in Urban Regeneration.” Urban Studies 41 (9):1789–1806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. D’Emilio, John. 1983. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. D’Emilio, John. 2002. The World Turned: Essays on Gay History, Politics and Culture. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Doan, Petra L., and Harrison Higgins. 2011. “The Demise of Queer Space? Resurgent Gentrification and the Assimilation of LGBT Neighborhoods.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 31 (1):6–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Drorbaugh, Elizabeth. 1993. “Sliding Scales: Notes on Storme DeLaverie and the Jewel Box Revue, the Cross-Dressed Woman on the Contemporary Stage and the Invert.” In Crossing the Stage: Controversies on Cross-Dressing, edited by Lesley Ferris, 120–143. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Duberman, Martin B., Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey. 1990. Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past. Vol. 1. New York: Plume.Google Scholar
  37. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Body Space. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Duruz, Jean. 2005. “Eating at the Borders: Culinary Journeys.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 23 (1):51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Escudero-Alías, Maite. 2011. “Ethics, Authorship, and the Representation of Drag Kings in Contemporary US Popular Culture.” The Journal of Popular Culture 44 (2):256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Falderman, Lillian. 1991. Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Falderman, Lillian. 1992. “The Return of the Butch/Femme: A Phenomenon of Lesbian Sexuality in the 1980s and 1990s.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 2 (4):578–596.Google Scholar
  42. Feinberg, Leslie. 1993. Stone Butch Blues. Ithaca: Firebrand Books.Google Scholar
  43. Feinberg, Leslie. 2006. Drag King Dreams. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Ferris, Lesley. 2005. Crossing the Stage: Controversies on Cross-Dressing. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Ford, Akkadia. 2015. “The Queer Film Festival as a Gender-Diverse Place: Positioning the ‘L’ in GLBTIQ Screen Content.” In Lesbian Geographies: Gender, Place and Power, edited by Kath and Eduarda Ferreira Browne, 177–190. Farnham and Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  46. Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality. Translated by Robert Hurley. Vol. 1. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  47. Fox, Katrina. 2011. “Fancy Piece: Embracing the Power of Queer.” The Scavenger. 10 June. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  48. Ghaziani, Amin. 2014. There Goes the Gayborhood? Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gieseking, Jen Jack. 2013. “Queering the Meaning of ‘Neighbourhood’: Reinterpreting the Lesbian-Queer Experience of Park Slope, Brooklyn, 1983–2008.” In Queer Presences and Absences, edited by Yvette Taylor and Michelle Addison, 178–200. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gieseking, Jen Jack. 2016. “Dyked New York: The Space Between Geographical Imagination and Materialization of Lesbian–Queer Bars and Neighbourhoods.” In The Routledge Research Companion to Geographies of Sex and Sexualities, edited by G. Brown and K. Bowne, 29–36. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Gorman-Murray, Andrew. 2006. “Imagining King Street in the Gay/Lesbian Media.” M/C Journal 9 (3). Accessed 1 May 2014.
  52. Gorman-Murray, Andrew, and Catherine Jean Nash. 2014. “Mobile Places, Relational Spaces: Conceptualizing Change in Sydney’s LGBTQ Neighborhoods.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 32 (4):622–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorman-Murray, Andrew, and Catherine Nash. 2017. “Transformations in LGBT Consumer Landscapes and Leisure Spaces in the Neoliberal City.” Urban Studies 54 (3):786–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gorman-Murray, Andrew, and Gordon Waitt. 2009. “Queer-Friendly Neighbourhoods: Interrogating Social Cohesion Across Sexual Difference in Two Australian Neighbourhoods.” Environment and Planning A 41 (12):2855–2873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grey, Leslee. 2011. “Sexuality Education: Lessons from Drag Kings.” Counterpoints 392 (The Sexuality Cirriculum and Youth Culture): 171–185.Google Scholar
  56. “Gurlesque.” 2002. Slit, 2:14–18.Google Scholar
  57. Halberstam, Judith. 1997. “Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper: Gender, Race and Masculinity in the Drag King Scene.” Social Text 15 (3 and 4): 104–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Halberstam, Judith. 1998. Female Masculinity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Halberstam, Judith. 2001. “Oh Behave! Austin Powers and the Drag Kings.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 7 (3):425–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Halberstam, Judith. 2003. “What’s That Smell? Queer Temporalities and Subcultural Lives.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 6 (3):313–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Halberstam, Judith. 2005. In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Halperin, D. M. 1989. One Hundred Years of Homosexuality: And Other Essays on Greek Love. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  63. Halperin, D. M. 2003. “The Normalization of Queer Theory.” Journal of Homosexuality 45 (2–4): 339–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Halperin, D. M. 2012. How to Be Gay. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hanson, J. 2007. “Drag Kinging: Embodied Acts and Acts of Embodiment.” Body Society 13 (1): 61–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hobson, Kathryn. 2013. “Performative Tensions in Female Drag Performances.” Kaleidoscope 12:35–51.Google Scholar
  67. Ingram, Gordon Brent, Anne-Marie Bouthillette, and Yolanda Retter, ed. 1997. Queers in Space: Communities, Public Places, Sites of Resistance. Seattle and Washington: Bay Press.Google Scholar
  68. i.t.a. 2013. “rocco d’amore”. Powder Zine. 4 July. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  69. Jagose, Annnamarie. 1996. Queer Theory. Carlton: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Jennings, Rebecca. 2015. Unnamed Desires: A Sydney Lesbian History. Clayton: Monash University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Johnston, C., and P. Van Reyk, eds. 2001. Queer City: Gay and Lesbian Politics in Sydney. Annandale: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  72. Katz, Jonathan. 1992. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the USA: A Documentary History. New York: Plume.Google Scholar
  73. Kennedy, Elizabeth Lapovsky, and Madeline D. Davis. 1994. Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  74. Kenney, Moira. 2001. Mapping Gay LA: The Intersection of Place and Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Knopp, Lawrence. 1990. “Some Theoretical Implications of Gay Involvement in an Urban Land Market.” Political Geography Quarterly 9 (4):337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Knopp, Lawrence. 1992. “Sexuality and the Spatial Dynamics of Capitalism.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 10 (6):651–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Knopp, Lawrence. 1995. Sexuality and Urban Space: A Framework for Analysis. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Knopp, Lawrence. 1997. “Gentrification and Gay Neighborhood Formation in New Orleans.” Homo Economics: Capitalism, Community, and Lesbian and Gay Life, 45–59. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Knopps, Lawrence. 1998. “Sexuality and Space: Gay Male Identity Politics in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.” In Cities of Difference, edited by R. Fincher and J. Jacobs, 149–178. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  80. Langley, Carol. 2006. Beneath the Sequined Surface: An Insight into Sydney Drag. Sydney: Currency Press.Google Scholar
  81. Lauria, Mickey, and Lawrence Knopp. 1985. “Toward an Analysis of the Role of Gay Communities in the Urban Renaissance.” Urban Geography 6 (2):152–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. LeBesco K., D. J. Troka, and J. Bobby (eds.) 2002. The Drag King Anthology. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  83. Levine, Martin P. 1979. “Gay Ghetto.” Journal of Homosexuality 4 (4):363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lewin, Ellen. 1991. “Writing Lesbian and Gay Culture: What the Natives Have to Say for Themselves.” American Ethnologist 18 (4):786–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lewin, Ellen. 1996. “Introduction.” In Inventing Lesbian Cultures in America, edited by Ellen Lewin. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  86. Lo, Jenny, and Theresa Healy. 2000. “Flagrantly Flaunting It?” Journal of Lesbian Studies 4 (1):29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lonely Planet. 2013. “Sly Fox.” Lonely Planet. Accessed 26 March 2013.
  88. Maltz, Robin. 1998. “Real Butch: The Performance/Performativity of Male Impersonation, Drag Kings, Passing as Male, and Stone Butch Realness.” Journal of Gender Studies 7 (3):273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Markwell, Kevin. 2002. “Mardi Gras Tourism and the Construction of Sydney as an International Gay and Lesbian City.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8 (1–2):81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mason, Gail, and Gary Lo. 2009. “Sexual Tourism and the Excitement of the Strange: Heterosexuality and the Sydney Mardi Gras Parade.” Sexualities 12 (1):97–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mayhew, Louise R. 2015. “Collaboration and Feminism: A Twenty-First Century Renaissance.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Art 15 (2):225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McInnes, David. 2001. “Inside the Outside: Politics and Gay and Lesbian Spaces in Sydney.” In Queer City: Gay and Lesbian Politics in Sydney, edited by Craig and Paul van Reyk Johnston, 164–178. Annandale: Pluto Press Australia Limited.Google Scholar
  93. Morgan, Joe. 2015. “The 12 Hottest, Weirdest and Coolest Drag Kings You Should Know.” Gay Star News. 20 August. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  94. Morris, Bonnie J. 2001. “‘Anyone Can Be a Lesbian’ The Women’s Music Audience and Lesbian Politics.” Journal of Lesbian Studies 5 (4):91–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Morris, Bonnie J. 2005. “Negotiating Lesbian Worlds: The Festival Communities.” Journal of Lesbian Studies 9 (1–2):55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Morris, Bonnie J. 2016. The Disappearing L: Erasure of Lesbian Spaces and Culture. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  97. Moses, Alexa. 2005. “Drag Kings Find Clothes That Maketh the Man.” SMH. 5 February. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  98. Murphy, Peter, and Sophie Watson. 1997. Surface City: Sydney at the Millenium. Annandale: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  99. Murray, Sarah E. 1994. “Dragon Ladies, Draggin’ Men: Some Reflections on Gender, Drag and Homosexual Communities.” Public Culture 6 (2):343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mushroom, M. 1983. “Confessions of a Butch Dyke.” Common Lives, Lesbian Lives 9: 39– 42.Google Scholar
  101. MySpace. n.d. “Queer Central.” Accessed 3 August 2010.
  102. Nash, Catherine Jean. 2011. “Trans Experiences in Lesbian and Queer Space.” The Canadian Geographer 55 (2):192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nash, Catherine Jean, and Alison Bain. 2007. “‘Reclaiming Raunch’? Spatializing Queer Identities at Toronto Women’s Bathhouse Events.” Social and Cultural Geography 8 (1):47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nash, Catherine Jean, and Andrew Gorman-Murray. 2015a. “Lesbian Spaces in Transition.” In Planning and LGBTQ Communities: The Need for Inclusive Queer Spaces, edited by Petra L Doan, 181–198. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nash, Catherine Jean, and Andrew Gorman-Murray. 2015b. “Recovering the Gay Village: A Comparative Historical Geography of Urban Change and Planning in Toronto and Sydney.” Historical Geography 43:84–105.Google Scholar
  106. Neevel, Neeve “Amy”. 2002. “Me Boy.” In The Drag King Anthology, edited by Kathleen LeBesco, Donna Jean Troka, and Jean Bobby Noble, 31–38. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  107. Newton, Esther. 1972. Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  108. Newton, Esther. 1984. “The Mythic Mannish Lesbian: Radclyff Hall and the New Woman.” Signs 9 (4):557–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Newton, Esther. 2000. “Dick(less) Tracy and the Homecoming Queen: Lesbian Power and Representation in Gay Male Cherry Grove.” In Margaret Mead Made Me Gay: Personal Essays, Public Ideas, edited by Esther Newton, 63–93. Durham: Duke University Press. Original edition, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pauliny, Tara. 2013. “Politics and Play: Mediations on Rhetorical Bodily Performance.” The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance 18 (2):179–191.Google Scholar
  111. Pellegrini, Ann. 2004. “Mind the Gap?” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 10 (4):637–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Perkins, Roberta. 2013. “The Scene Was Mean: The Drag Scene in Sydney in the 1980s.” The Gender Centre. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  113. Podmore, Julie A. 2001. “Lesbians in the Crowd: Gender, Sexuality and Visibility Along Montréal’s Boul. St-Laurent.” Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 8 (4):333–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Podmore, Julie A. 2006. “Gone ‘Underground’? Lesbian Visibility and the Consolidation of Queer Space in Montreal.” Social and Cultural Geography 7 (4):595–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Podmore, Julie A. 2013. “Lesbians as Village ‘Queers’: The Transformation of Montreal’s Lesbian Nightlife in the 1990s.” ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 12 (2):220–249.Google Scholar
  116. Probyn, Elspeth. 1995. “VIEWPOINT Lesbians in Space: Gender, Sex and the Structure of the Missing.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 2 (1):77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Reynolds, Robert. 2009. “Endangered Territory, Endangered Identity: Oxford Street and the Dissipation of Gay Life.” Journal of Australian Studies 33 (1):79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Riley, Benjamin. 2014. “I Will Survive.” Star Observer. 16 July. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  119. Robertson, Jennifer. 1998. Takarazuka: Sexual Politics and Popular Culture in Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  120. Rogers, B. A. 2018. “Drag as a Resource: Trans* and Nonbinary Individuals in the Southeastern United States.” Gender & Society 33 (2): 0891243218794865.Google Scholar
  121. Rubin, Gayle. 1992. “Of Catamites and Kings: Reflections on Butch, Gender and Boundaries.” In The Persistent Desire: A Butch-Femme Reader, edited by Joan Nestle, 486–492. Boston: Alyson Publications.Google Scholar
  122. Rupp, Lelia J., and Verta Taylor. 2003. Drag Queens at the 801 Cabaret. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rupp, Lelia J., Verta Taylor, and Eve Ilana Shapiro. 2010. “Drag Queens and Drag Kings: The Difference Gender Makes.” Sexualities 13 (3):275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rushbrook, Dereka. 2002. “Cities, Queer Space, and the Cosmopolitan Tourist.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8 (1):183–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ruting, Brad. 2008. “Economic Transformations of Gay Urban Spaces: Revisiting Collins’ Evolutionary Gay District Model.” Australian Geographer 39 (3):259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Schacht, Steven P. 2002. “Lesbian Drag Kings and the Female Embodiment of the Masculine.” In The Drag King Anthology, edited by Kathleen LeBesco, Donna Jean Troka, and Jean Bobby Noble, 75–98. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  127. Schacht, Steven P., and Lisa Underwood, ed. 2004. The Drag Queen Anthology: The Absolutely Fabulous But Flawlessly Customary World of Female Impersonators. New York: The Haworth Press Inc.Google Scholar
  128. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. 1990. Epistemology of the Closet. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  129. Senelick, Laurence. 2000. The Changing Room: Sex, Drag and Theatre. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  130. Sennett, J., and S. Bay-Cheng. 2002. “‘I Am the Man!’ Performing Gender and Other Incongrueties.” In The Drag King Anthology, edited by K. LeBesco, D. J. Troka, and J. B. Noble, 39–50. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  131. Shapiro, Eve. 2007. “Drag Kinging and the Transformation of Gender Identities.” Gender and Society 21 (2):250–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stein, Arlene, ed. 1993. Sisters, Sexperts, Queers: Beyond the Lesbian Nation. New York: Plume Books.Google Scholar
  133. Stone, Amy L., and Eve Shapiro. 2016. “‘Your’re Really Just a Gay Man in a Woman’s Body!’ The Possibilities and Perils of Queer Sexuality.” Men and Masculinities 22:1–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Straw, Will. 2004. “Cultural Scenes.” Society and Leisure 27 (2):411–422.Google Scholar
  135. Taylor, Jodie. 2007. “The Music of Kings and Bio Queens.” Kritikos 4 October.Google Scholar
  136. “The Sly Fox.” 2012. Accessed 15 August 2014.
  137. Time Out Sydney. 2012. “The Sly Fox Hotel.” Accessed 16 April 2012.
  138. Torr, Diane, and Stephen Bottoms. 2010. Sex, Drag and Male Roles: Investigating Gender as Performance. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Valentine, Gill. 1993a. “Desperately Seeking Susan: A Geography of Lesbian Friendships.” Area 25:109–116.Google Scholar
  140. Valentine, Gill. 1993b. “(Hetero)sexing Space: Lesbian Perspectives and Experiences of Everyday Places.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 11 (4):395–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Valentine, Gill. 1993c. “Negotiating and Managing Multiple Sexual Identities: Lesbian Time Management Strategies.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20 (4):237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Valentine, Gill. 1995a. “Out and Above: Geographies of Lesbian Landscapes.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Restructuring 19:96–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Valentine, Gill. 1995b. “Creating Transgressive Space: The Music of KD Lang.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20 (4):474–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Valentine, Gill. 1996. “(Re)negotiating the ‘Heterosexual Street’: Lesbian Productions of Space.” In Body Space, edited by Nancy Duncan, 146–155. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  145. Valentine, Gill, and Tracey Skelton. 2003. “Finding Oneself, Losing Oneself: The Lesbian and Gay ‘Scene’ as a Paradoxical Space.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27 (4):849–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Valocchi, Stephen. 2005. “Not yet Queer Enough: The Lessons of Queer Theory for the Sociology of Gender and Sexuality.” Gender & Society 19 (6):750–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Volcano, Del LaGrace, and Judith ‘Jack’ Halberstam. 1999. The Drag King Book. London: Serpent’s Tail.Google Scholar
  148. “What a Drag!”. 2015. Exhibition Celebrates Melbourne’s Drag Queen Scene. ABC. 18 June. Accessed 19 January 2015.
  149. Willox, Annabelle. 2002. “Whose Drag Is It Anyway? Drag Kings and Monarchy in the UK.” In The Drag King Anthology, edited by Kathleen LeBesco, Donna Jean Troka, and Jean Bobby Noble, 263–284. New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  150. Wolf, Deborah Goleman. 1980. The Lesbian Community: With an Afterword, 1980. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  151. Wolfe, Maxine. 1997. “Invisible Women in Invisible Places: The Production of Social Space in Lesbian Bars.” In Queers in Space: Communities, Public Places, Sites of Resistance, edited by A. Bouthillette and Y. Retter, 301–324. Seattle: Bay Press.Google Scholar
  152. Wotherspoon, Garry. 1991. ‘City of the Plain’: History of a Gay Sub-Culture. Sydney: Hale & Iremonger.Google Scholar
  153. Wotherspoon, Garry. 2015. “Drag and Cross Dressing in Sydney.” Dictionary of Sydney. 11 March. Accessed 17 February 2016.
  154. Wotherspoon, Garry. 2016. Gay Sydney: A History. NewSouth.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Social Research in HealthUNSW SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations