An International Comparative Perspective on Higher Education Institutions’ Governance and Management—Portugal, Finland, and Brazil
- 164 Downloads
Reforms in higher education (HE) in the last decades have been influenced by global and international trends associated with two parallel processes: questioning of the nation-state and the gradual decomposition of the welfare state (Carvalho and Santiago in Professionalism, Managerialism and Reform in Higher Education and the Health Services: The European Welfare State and the Rise of the Knowledge Society. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015; Kwiek in Higher Education in Europe 26:27–38, 2001). These processes intersect with the influence of neo-liberal ideas, strongly diffused by international organizations (Amaral and Neave in International Organizations and Higher Education Policy: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally. Routledge, London, pp. 82–98, 2009; Ball in Policy Futures in Education 14:1046–1059, 2016). According to Stephan Ball (Policy Futures in Education 14:1046–1059, 2016), neo-liberal influences in HE can be summarized by three interrelated and interdependent technologies: market, management, and performance. These technologies were translated in the emergence of new management and governance models within higher education institutions (HEIs) in such a way that institutional governance became an international issue (Reed and Meek in Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. xv–xxxi, 2002). It has been acknowledged that changes in governance and management structures in HE all over the world include transformations in the Humboldtian principles of organization along with changes in the collegial model of decision-making and a redefinition of power relations, where external stakeholders and new professionals assume a relevant role within academia (Capano in Public Administration 89:1622–1642, 2011; Reed and Meek in Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. xv–xxxi, 2002; Welch in Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Taylor & Francis, 2011), with implications on academics’ work (Blackmore et al. in Re-positioning University Governance and Academic Work. Sense Publishers, 2010; Carvalho and Santiago in Higher Education Policy 23:397–411, 2010; Marginson in Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 22:23–35, 2000). Nevertheless, few comparative international perspectives have been developed, especially when considering the need to include countries with distinct historical processes of nation-state creation, different welfare state models and diverse levels of economic development, and social and cultural characteristics. There is, indeed, a study gap on New Public Management (NPM) constructs and their application “with little understanding of several important cultural dimensions” (Stromquist in Compare 30:261–264, 2000). This chapter compares the perceived changes in HEI management and its impact on academics in three countries: Brazil, Finland, and Portugal. Data analysis relies on a qualitative approach, empirically based on 70 interviews conducted in the 3 countries to top and middle academic managers, following the same interviewing guidelines. Despite significant differences in systems’ organization and funding, cultures’ governance and management, and professionals’ and students’ profiles, there are more similar views on changes in governance and management and its impact on academics than expected. In these countries, academics expressed similar views on the increased influence of a management culture within their institutions and a loss of professional autonomy.
KeywordsPortugal Brazil Finland Higher Education Institutions Governance Management International organizations New Public Management Globalization
- Almeida, A. N., & Vieira, M. M. (2012). From University to Diversity: The Making of Portuguese Higher Education. In G. Neave & A. Amaral (Eds.), Higher Education in Portugal 1974–2009: A Nation, a Generation (pp. 137–159). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Amaral, A., & Neave, G. (2009). The OECD and Its Influence in Higher Education: A Critical Revision. In R. M. Bassett &. A. Maldonado-Maldonado (Eds.), International Organizations and Higher Education Policy: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally (pp. 82–98). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Austin, A. E., & Gamson, Z. F. (1983). Academic Workplace: New Demands, Heightened Tensions (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Report No. 10, 1983). ERIC.Google Scholar
- Barbosa, M. A. C. (2015). A influência das políticas públicas e políticas organizacionais para formação de competências gerenciais no papel do professor-gestor no ensino superior: um estudo em uma IES federal (Doctoral), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.Google Scholar
- Birnbaum, R. (1988). How Colleges Work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Blackmore, J., Brennan, M., & Zipin, L. (2010). Re-positioning University Governance and Academic Work (Vol. 41, pp. 1–16). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
- Bovens, M. A., T’Hart, P., & Peters, B. G. (2002). Success and Failure in Public Governance: A Comparative Analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). (2017). Estimativas populacionais para os municípios e para as Unidades da Federação brasileiros em 01.07.2017. Retrieved from https://ww2.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/estimativa2017/default.shtm.
- Bresser-Pereira, L. (2008). Construindo o estado republicano. Rio de Janeiro: Editora da Fundação Getúlio Vargas.Google Scholar
- Bruckmann, S. (2017). Changes in Governance and Management of Higher Education Institutions in Portugal (PhD Dissertation), Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro.Google Scholar
- Carvalho, T., & Santiago, R. (2015). Professionalism, Managerialism and Reform in Higher Education and the Health Services: The European Welfare State and the Rise of the Knowledge Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Dale, R., & Robertson, S. (2004). Interview with Boaventura de Sousa Santos. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 2, 147–160.Google Scholar
- DGES. (2016). Instituições de Ensino Superior Portuguesas [Portuguese Higher Education Institutions]. Retrieved from http://www.dges.mctes.pt/DGES/pt/Reconhecimento/NARICENIC/Ensino+Superior/Institui%C3%A7%C3%B5es+de+Ensino+Superior+Portuguesas/.
- Diogo, S. (2016). Changes in Finnish and Portuguese Higher Education Governance: Comparing National and Institutional Responses to the Bologna Process and New Public Management (PhD Monograph), University of Aveiro and University of Jyväskylä, Aveiro and Jyväskylä.Google Scholar
- Enders, J. (2004). Higher Education, Internationalisation, and the Nation-State: Recent Developments and Challenges to Governance Theory. Higher Education, 47(3), 361–382. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:HIGH.0000016461.98676.30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ésther, A. B., & Melo, M. C. D. O. L. (2008). A construção da identidade gerencial dos gestores da alta administração de universidades federais em Minas Gerais. Cadernos EBAPE. BR, 6(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
- Gomes, O., Gomide, T., Gomes, M., de Araujo, D., Martins, S., & Faroni, W. (2013). Sentidos e implicações da gestão universitária para os gestores universitários. Revista Gestão Universitária na América Latina-GUAL, 6(4), 234–255.Google Scholar
- Hooghe, L., & Marks, G. (2001). Multi-level Governance and European Integration. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefields Publishers.Google Scholar
- Kallo, J. (2009). OECD Education Policy: A Comparative and Historical Study Focusing on the Thematic Reviews of Tertiary Education (PhD thesis), Helsinki.Google Scholar
- Kersbergen, K. V., & Waarden, F. V. (2004). ‘Governance’ as a Bridge Between Disciplines: Cross‐Disciplinary Inspiration Regarding Shifts in Governance and Problems of Governability, Accountability and Legitimacy. European Journal of Political Research, 43(2), 143–171.Google Scholar
- Magro, D., Secchi, L., & Laus, S. (2013). A nova gestão pública e o produtivismo imposto pela Capes: implicações na produção científica nas universidades. ENCONTRO NACIONAL DA ASSOCIAÇÃO NACIONAL DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO E PESQUISA EM ADMINISTRAÇÃO, 37.Google Scholar
- Mintzberg, H. (1979). The Structuring of Organization: A Synthesis of the Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2009). OECD Reviews for Tertiary Education. Finland: Retrieved from Paris.Google Scholar
- OKM. (2013). Education. Retrieved from http://www.minedu.fi/OPM/Koulutus/?lang=en.
- OKM. (2016). Education. Retrieved from http://www.minedu.fi/OPM/Koulutus/?lang=en.
- Pascuci, L., Meyer Junior, V., Magioni, B., & Sena, R. (2016). Managerialism na gestão universitária: Implicações do planejamento estratégico segundo a percepção de gestores de uma universidade pública. Revista Gestão Universitária na América Latina-GUAL, 9(1), 37–59.Google Scholar
- Pollitt, C., & Bouckaert, G. (2011). Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis-New Public Management, Governance, and the Neo-Weberian State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Pollitt, C., Van Thiel, S., & Homburg, V. (Eds.). (2007). New Public Management in Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Reed, M., & Meek, L. (2002). Introduction. In A. Amaral, G. A. Jones, & B. Karseth (Eds.), Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional Governance (pp. xv–xxxi). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Ribeiro, D. D. A. (2011). Trajetória institucional da universidade brasileira – A UFBA como reflexo e modelo [Institutional Trajectory of the Brazilian University – The UFBA as a Reflection and Model, Doctoral Thesis], Tese de doutorado, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brasil.Google Scholar
- Salminen, A. (2003). New Public Management and Finnish Public Sector Organisations: The Case of Universities. In The Higher Education Managerial Revolution? (pp. 55–69). Springer.Google Scholar
- Shore, C., & Wright, S. (1999). Audit Culture and Anthropology: Neo-Liberalism in British Higher Education. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 5(4), 557–575.Google Scholar
- Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. L. (1997). Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Valentim, I., & Evangelista, S. (2013). Para onde vai o Ensino Universitário Federal Brasileiro? Pistas e Subjetivações a partir da Lei 12.772/2012. Paper presented at the XIII Colóquio Internacional sobre Gestão Universitária nas Américas.Google Scholar
- Välimaa, J. (2001). Finnish Higher Education in Transition: Perspectives on Massification and Globalisation. Jyväskylä: Koulutuksen tutkimuslaitos.Google Scholar
- Welch, A. (2011). Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Blurring Borders, Changing Balance. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar