Pulsed Decimal Encoding for IoT Single-Channel Dynamic Signaling

  • Shahzad MuzaffarEmail author
  • Ibrahim (Abe) M. Elfadel
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 500)


Pulsed-Index Communication (PIC) is a recent technique for single-channel communication that is based on the principle of transmitting the indices of only the ON bits as a series of pulse streams. In this paper, a modified version of PIC, called Pulsed Decimal Communication (PDC), is presented that uses the same underlying principle but with key improvements in data rate and reliability. Like PIC, PDC is a protocol for single-channel, high-data rate, low-power dynamic signaling that does not require any clock and data recovery. It consists of a three-step algorithm, comprising a segmentation, an encoding, and a sub-segmentation step to achieve higher data rates. The segmentation step splits the data word into smaller segments and therefore smaller decimal numbers to represent them. The encoding step reduces the number of ON bits in the data and relocates them to lower indices. The sub-segmentation step further splits the segments into smaller sub-segments. The complete process significantly reduces the total number of pulses required for transmitting binary data, thus improving the data rate by about 78%. A theoretical model of the PDC protocol is exploited to estimate its data rate and derive the optimum segmentation. Furthermore, PDC is shown to be more reliable than PIC as it eliminates the variations in the number of symbols to be transmitted. The FPGA and ASIC (65 nm technology) implementations of PDC show that the low-power operation and small footprint of PIC are preserved. PDC consumes around \(25\,\upmu \mathrm{W}\) of power at a clock frequency of 25 MHz with a gate count of approximately 2150 gates.


Dynamic signaling Single-channel Low-power communication Clock and data recovery Internet of Things Automatic protocol configuration Pulsed-decimal communication Pulsed-index communication 



This work has been supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) under the Abu Dhabi-SRC Center of Excellence on Energy-Efficient Electronic Systems (ACE4S), Contract 2013 HJ2440, with customized funding from the Mubadala Investment Company, Abu Dhabi, UAE.


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© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Khalifa University of Science and TechnologyAbu DhabiUAE

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