Advertisement

Accessible and Equitable Tourism Services for Travelers with Disabilities: From a Charitable to a Commercial Footing

  • Kristof TomejEmail author
Chapter
Part of the CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance book series (CSEG)

Abstract

Until recently, charities and nonprofits have been the primary providers of recreational services for persons with disabilities (PwD). Increased pressure for a self-sustaining financial existence, as well as the acknowledgment of the value that the market of PwD has, have led to such services increasingly finding their way in competitive commercial environments as well. The chapter traces the development of inclusive holidays for persons with and without visual impairment based on sighted guiding from the historical changes in the understanding of the concept of disability as well as the provision of recreational and tourism services for PwD. The author argues that reverse integration—the approach that these holidays follow—is a viable and efficient way of offering equitable tourism services, particularly when businesses embrace social entrepreneurship. The chapter is built on the assumption that offering accessible and equitable tourism products for PwD is an integral element of corporate sustainability and responsibility in the tourism industry.

Keywords

Equitable tourism Disability Visual impairment Reverse integration Social business 

References

  1. Aitchison, C. C. (2007). Marking difference or making a difference: Constructing places, policies and knowledge of inclusion, exclusion and social justice in leisure, sport and tourism. In I. Ateljevic, A. Pritchard, & N. Morgan (Eds.), The critical turn in tourism studies: Innovative research methodologies (pp. 77–90). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  2. Amsel, R., & Fichten, C. S. (1988). Effects of contact on thoughts about interaction with students who have a physical disability. Journal of Rehabilitation, 54(1), 61.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, D. R., & Lee, Y. (2013). Inclusive and special recreation: Opportunities for diverse populations to flourish (6th ed.). Urbana, IL: Sagamore Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Beder, S. (1996). The nature of sustainable development (2nd ed.). Newham: Scribe Publications.Google Scholar
  5. Bolt, D. (2005). From blindness to visual impairment: Terminological typology and the social model of disability. Disability & Society, 20(5), 539–552.Google Scholar
  6. Bruce, I., Harrow, J., & Obolenskaya, P. (2007). Blind and partially sighted people’s perceptions of their inclusion by family and friends. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 25(1), 68–85.Google Scholar
  7. Buhalis, D., Darcy, S., & Ambrose, I. (Eds.). (2012). Best practice in accessible tourism: Inclusion, disability, ageing population and tourism. Bristol: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
  8. Burnett, J. J., & Baker, H. B. (2001). Assessing the travel-related behaviors of the mobility-disabled consumer. Journal of Travel Research, 40(1), 4–11.Google Scholar
  9. Candlin, F. (2003). Blindness, art and exclusion in museums and galleries. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 22(1), 100–110.Google Scholar
  10. Card, J., Cole, S., & Humphrey, A. (2006). A comparison of the accessibility and attitudinal barriers model: Travel providers and travelers with physical disabilities. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism, 11(2), 161–175.Google Scholar
  11. Chang, Y.-C., & Chen, C.-F. (2011). Identifying mobility service needs for disabled air passengers. Tourism Management, 32(5), 1214–1217.Google Scholar
  12. Chouinard, V., & Crooks, V. A. (2008). Negotiating neoliberal environments in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada: Restructuring of state-voluntary sector relations and disability organizations’ struggles to survive. Environmenrtal Planning C: Governmnet and Policy, 26, 173–190.Google Scholar
  13. Darcy, S. (2010). Inherent complexity: Disability, accessible tourism and accommodation information preferences. Tourism Management, 31(6), 816–826.Google Scholar
  14. Darcy, S., & Buhalis, D. (2011). Introduction: From disabled tourists to accessible tourism. In D. Buhalis & S. Darcy (Eds.), Accessible tourism: Concepts and issues (pp. 1–20). Bristol: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
  15. Darcy, S., Cameron, B., & Pegg, S. (2010). Accessible tourism and sustainability: A discussion and case study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(4), 515–537.Google Scholar
  16. Darcy, S., & Dickson, T. J. (2009). A whole-of-life approach to tourism: The case for accessible tourism experiences. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 16(1), 32–44.Google Scholar
  17. Darcy, S., & Pegg, S. (2011). Towards strategic intent: Perceptions of disability service provision amongst hotel accommodation managers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 468–476.Google Scholar
  18. Daruwalla, P., & Darcy, S. (2005). Personal and societal attitudes to disability. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3), 549–570.Google Scholar
  19. Dees, J. G. (2012). A tale of two cultures: Charity, problem solving, and the future of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111, 321–334.Google Scholar
  20. Devine, M., & King, B. (2006). Research update: The inclusion landscape. Parks and Recreation-West, 41(5), 22–25.Google Scholar
  21. Dialogue Social Enterprise GmbH. (n.d.). Dialogue in the dark. http://www.dialogue-in-the-dark.com. Accessed March 21, 2017.
  22. Dredge, D., & Gyimóthy, S. (2015). The collaborative economy and tourism collaborative economy and tourism: Critical perspectives, questionable claims and silenced voices. Tourism Recreation Research, 40(3), 286–302.Google Scholar
  23. Eichhorn, V., & Buhalis, D. (2011). Accessibility: A key objective for the tourism industry. In D. Buhalis & S. Darcy (Eds.), Accessible tourism: Concepts and issues (pp. 46–61). Bristol: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Eichhorn, V., Miller, G., Michopoulou, E., & Buhalis, D. (2008). Enablind access to tourism through information schemes. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(1), 189–210.Google Scholar
  25. Evans, A. B., Bright, J. L., & Brown, L. J. (2015). Non-disabled secondary school children’s lived experiences of a wheelchair basketball programme delivered in the East of England. Sport, Education and Society, 20(6), 741–761.Google Scholar
  26. Francis, L., & Silvers, A. (2016). Perspectives on the meaning of “Disability”. AMA Journal of Ethics, 18(10), 1025–1033.Google Scholar
  27. Fritsch, K. (2013). On the negative possibility of suffering: Adorno, feminist philosophy, and the transfigured crip to come. Disability Studies Quarterly, 33(4).  https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v33i4.3869.
  28. Goodall, B., Pottinger, G., Dixon, T., & Russell, H. (2004). Heritage property, tourism and the UK Disability Discrimination Act. Property Management, 22(5), 345–357.Google Scholar
  29. Grue, J. (2016). The social meaning of disability: A reflection on categorisation, stigma and identity. Sociology of Health & Illness, 38(6), 957–964.Google Scholar
  30. Hamraie, A. (2016). Universal Design and the problem of “Post-Disability” ideology. Design and Culture, 8(3), 285–309.Google Scholar
  31. Henley, J. (2011). Sightseeing for blind people. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/jun/30/blind-people-travel-traveleyes. Accessed September 13, 2017.
  32. Hersh, M. A. (2016). Improving deafblind travelers’ experiences: An international survey. Journal of Travel Research, 55(3), 380–394.Google Scholar
  33. Hutzler, Y., Chacham-Guber, A., & Reiter, S. (2013). Psychosocial effects of reverse-integrated basketball activity compared to separate and no physical activity in young people with physical disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 579–587.Google Scholar
  34. Jackson, R. (1997, September). Community integration: much more than “Being There”. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Society for the Study of Intellectual Disability, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  35. Kastenholz, E., Eusébio, C., & Figueiredo, E. (2015). Contributions of tourism to social inclusion of persons with disability. Disability & Society, 30(8), 1259–1281.Google Scholar
  36. Kerlin, J. A. (2006). Social enterprise in the United States and Europe: Understanding and learning from the differences. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 17(3), 247–262.Google Scholar
  37. Kiunke, G. (2017). Stuttgarter Veranstalter bietet Reisen für Blinde und Sehende an [Tour operator in Stuttgart offers trips for the blind and the sighted]. http://www.stuttgarter-nachrichten.de/impressum. Accessed October 3, 2017.
  38. Law, C. M., Soo YI, J., Choi, Y. S., & Jacko, J. A. (2007). Unresolved problems in accessibility and universal design guidelines. Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 15(3), 7–11.Google Scholar
  39. Logan, K. R., Jacobs, H. A., Gast, D. L., Murray, A. S., Daino, K., & Skala, C. (1998). The impact of typical peers on the perceived happiness of students with profound multiple disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 23(4), 309–318.Google Scholar
  40. Macpherson, H. (2009). The intercorporeal emergence of landscape: Negotiating sight, blindness, and ideas of landscape in the British countryside. Environment and Planning A, 41(5), 1042–1054.Google Scholar
  41. Macpherson, H. (2012). Guiding visually impaired walking groups: Intercorporeal experience and ethical sensibilities. In M. Paterson & M. Dodge (Eds.), Touching space, placing touch (pp. 131–150). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  42. Maras, P., & Brown, R. (1996). Effects of contact on children’s attitudes toward disability: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26(23), 2113–2134.Google Scholar
  43. Münch, H., & Ulrich, R. (2011). Inclusive tourism. In A. Papathanassis (Ed.), The long tail of tourism (pp. 159–169). Wiesbaden: Gabler.Google Scholar
  44. Özogul, G., & Baran, G. G. (2016). Accessible tourism: The golden key in the future for the specialized travel agencies. Journal of Tourism Futures, 2(1), 79–87.Google Scholar
  45. Plummer, J. (2004). Former director slams rebrand. Third Sector. https://www.thirdsector.co.uk/former-director-slams-rebrand/article/612176. Accessed October 16, 2017.
  46. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review, 89(1/2), 54–67.Google Scholar
  47. Rahdari, A., Sepasi, S., & Moradi, M. (2016). Achieving sustainability through Schumpeterian social entrepreneurship: The role of social enterprises. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 347–360.Google Scholar
  48. Ramrayka, L. (2001). Walk the talk: How guide dogs for the blind reformed from the top down. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2001/jun/13/guardiansocietysupplement6. Accessed October 21, 2017.
  49. Ray, N. M., & Ryder, M. E. (2003). “Ebilities” tourism: An exploratory discussion of the travel needs and motivations of the mobility-disabled. Tourism Management, 24(1), 57–72.Google Scholar
  50. Reid, G. (2018). Managing budget cuts in Edinburgh’s sport and recreation services: Progressive localism in a resilient local authority? International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 10(1), 113–129.Google Scholar
  51. Richards, V., Pritchard, A., & Morgan, N. (2010). (Re) Envisioning tourism and visual impairment. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(4), 1097–1116.Google Scholar
  52. Schleien, S. J., Green, F., & Stone, C. (2003). Making friends within inclusive community recreation programs. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 2(1), 7–16.Google Scholar
  53. Sharpley, R. (2002). Rural tourism and the challenge of tourism diversification: The case of Cyprus. Tourism Management, 23(3), 233–244.Google Scholar
  54. Shaw, G., & Coles, T. (2004). Disability, holiday making and the tourism industry in the UK: A preliminary survey. Tourism Management.Google Scholar
  55. Shaw, G., & Veitch, C. (2011). Demographic drivers of change in tourism and the challenge of inclusive products. In D. Buhalis & S. Darcy (Eds.), Accessible tourism: Concepts and issues (pp. 46–61). Bristol: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
  56. Shelton, E. J., & Tucker, H. (2005). Tourism and disability: Issues beyond access. Tourism Review International, 8(3), 211–219.Google Scholar
  57. Small, J. (2015). Interconnecting mobilities on tour: Tourists with vision impairment partnered with sighted tourists. Tourism Geographies, 17(1), 76–90.Google Scholar
  58. Small, J., Darcy, S., & Packer, T. (2012). The embodied tourist experiences of people with vision impairment: Management implications beyond the visual gaze. Tourism Management, 33(4), 941–950.Google Scholar
  59. Smith, R. W. (1987). Leisure of disable tourists: Barriers to participation. Annals of Tourism Research, 14(3), 376–389.Google Scholar
  60. Takeda, K., & Card, J. A. (2002). US tour operators and travel agencies: Barriers encountered when providing package tours to people who have difficulty walking. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 12(1), 47–61.Google Scholar
  61. The Center for Universal Design. (1997). The Principles of Universal Design. https://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_ud/udprinciplestext.htm. Accessed February 23, 2017.
  62. Tour de Sens. (n.d.). Reisekonzept—Reisen für Blinde, Sehbehinderte und Sehende. http://tourdesens.de/index.php/konzept.html. Accessed March 15, 2017.
  63. Traveleyes. (n.d.). About us. https://traveleyes-international.com/about-us. Accessed September 17, 2017.
  64. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2015). World population ageing [Highlights]. New York, NY: United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WPA2015_Highlights.pdf. Accessed March 20, 2017.
  65. UN World Health Organization (WHO). (2011). World report on disability. Malta. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789240685215_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed February 25, 2017.
  66. UNWTO. (2001). Global code of ethics for tourism: For responsible tourism. Santiago, Childe: Thirteenth WTO General Assembly. http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/gcetbrochureglobalcodeen.pdf. Accessed September 24, 2017.
  67. Vandenbulcke, G., Steenberghen, T., & Thomas, I. (2009). Mapping accessibility in Belgium: A tool for land-use and transport planning? Journal of Transport Geography, 17(1), 39–53.Google Scholar
  68. Vislie, L. (2003). From integration to inclusion: Focusing global trends and changes in the western European societies. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 18(1), 17–35.Google Scholar
  69. Visser, W. (2010). CSR 2.0: From the age of greed to the age of responsibility. In W. Sun, J. Stewart, & D. Pollard (Eds.), Reframing corporate social responsibility: Lessons from the global financial crisis (Critical Studies on Corporate Responsbility, Governmance and Sustainability, Volume 1) (pp. 231–251). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  70. Vitalise becomes Revitalise today. (2014). http://revitalise.org.uk/news/vitalise-becomes-revitalise-today. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  71. Volunteers needed to help visually impaired and blind people enjoy holidays in the UK, Europe and worldwide. (n.d.). http://accessatlast.com/article/volunteers-needed-to-help-visually-impaired-and-blind-people-enjoy-holidays-in-the-uk-europe-and-worldwide/275/8. Accessed March 15, 2017.
  72. WCED. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Wei-Skiller, J., Austin, J. E., Leonard, H., & Stevenson, H. (2007). Entrepreneurship in the social sector. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  74. Weiss, E. B. (1990). In fairness to future generations. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 32(3), 6–31.Google Scholar
  75. Wiggins, K. (2011). Mindy Sawhney, Vitalise. Third Sector. https://www.thirdsector.co.uk/mindy-sawhney-vitalise/governance/article/1054422. Accessed September 16, 2017.
  76. Yau, M. K., McKercher, B., & Packer, T. L. (2004). Traveling with a disability: More than an access issue. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 946–960.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Tourism and Service ManagementMODUL University ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations