Advertisement

Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation

Chapter

Abstract

Breaking up physical contact is the most effective way of breaking the transmission chain of infection. Measures used to reduce contact and minimize exposure are known as social distancing. Several social distancing measures have been successfully practiced throughout history and in modern medicine, including placing in isolation the infected individuals with an active illness and placing in quarantine individuals potentially exposed to the infective agent. Other measures include shelter-in-place, cordon sanitaire, or protective sequestration. Each of those measures comes with complex legal, ethical, and logistical challenges, but also mental health challenges associated with isolation and uncertainty. Taking psychological aspects of social distancing into account when planning and implementing social distancing and taking measures to reduce perceived isolation and to address uncertainties may pay off short-term, by motivating participation and enhancing adherence, as well as long-term, by lowering the incidence of PTSD, anxiety, depression, or substance abuse.

Keywords

Social distancing Isolation Quarantine Shelter-in-place Cordon sanitaire Protective sequestration 

References

  1. 1.
    Tognotti E. Lessons from the history of quarantine, from plague to influenza A. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19(2):254–9.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1902.120312.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guidance on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be used by healthcare workers during management of patients with confirmed Ebola or persons under investigation (PUIs) for Ebola who are clinically unstable or have bleeding, vomiting, or diarrhea in U.S. Hospitals, including procedures for donning and doffing PPE, CDC. 2015 Aug. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/healthcare-us/ppe/guidance.html
  3. 3.
    Markel H. Worldly approaches to global health: 1851 to the present. Public Health. 2014;128(2):124–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2013.08.004. Epub 2014 Jan 7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Why did Congress pass the federal quarantine legislation? Grateful American Foundation. http://gratefulamericanfoundation.com/facts/11532/
  5. 5.
    Vanderhook KL. A history of federal control of communicable diseases: section 361 of the Public Health Service Act (2002 Third Year Paper).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weathersbee K. Quarantine: its use and limitations. AmericanBar.org. 2008. http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/adminlaw/awardsprogram/08GSwinneressay.authcheckdam.pdf. Accessed 29 July 2018.
  7. 7.
    Legal authorities for isolation and quarantine, CDC page on isolation and quarantine. https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/aboutlawsregulationsquarantineisolation.html. October 2014.
  8. 8.
    Ooi PL, Lim S, Chew SK. Use of quarantine in the control of SARS in Singapore. Am J Infect Control. 2005;33(5):252–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dahl BA, Kinzer MH, Raghunathan PL, et al. CDC’s response to the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic—Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. MMWR Suppl. 2016;65(Suppl-3):12–20.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.su6503a3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Governor’s Press Office (New York State). Governor Andrew Cuomo and Governor Chris Christie announce additional screening protocols for Ebola at JFK and Newark Liberty International airports. 2014 Oct 24. Available at https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/governor-andrew-cuomo-and-governor-chris-christie-announce-additional-screening-protocols-ebola
  11. 11.
    Price PJ. Quarantine and liability in the context of Ebola. Public Health Rep. 2016;131(3):500–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Azad A. Innocently detained: a legal analysis of United States quarantine. 2016 Sept 1. Columbia Undergraduate Law Review Blog. http://blogs.cuit.columbia.edu/culr/2016/09/01/innocently-detained-a-legal-analysis-of-united-states-quarantine/
  13. 13.
    Pandemic planning: sheltering-in-place fact sheet. The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints. https://www.lds.org/bc/content/shared/english/safety/pandemic-planning-sheltering-in-place.pdf?lang=eng. Accessed July 2018.
  14. 14.
    Dailey SF, Kaplan D. Shelter-in-place and mental health: an analogue study of well-being and distress. J Emerg Manag. 2014;12(2):121–31.  https://doi.org/10.5055/jem.2014.0166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Quarantine and Isolation: lessons learned from Sars. A report to the centers for disease control and prevention, Institute for Bioethics, Health Policy and Law University of Louisville School of Medicine. 2003 Nov. https://biotech.law.lsu.edu/blaw/cdc/SARS_REPORT.pdf
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Rothstein MA. From SARS to Ebola: legal and ethical considerations for modern quarantine (January 9, 2015). Indiana Health Law Rev. 2015 Forthcoming;12(1); University of Louisville School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series No. 2015–03.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2499701.
  18. 18.
    Hoffmann RK, Hoffmann K. Ethical considerations in the use of Cordons sanitaires, clinical correlations. The NYU Langone Online J Med. 2015 Feb 19. http://www.clinicalcorrelations.org/?p=8357
  19. 19.
    1918 influenza escape communities: Gunnison, Center for the History of Medicine, Medical School University of Michigan. http://chm.med.umich.edu/research/1918-influenza-escape-communities/gunnison/. Accessed July 2018.
  20. 20.
    Markel H, et al. Nonpharmaceutical influenza mitigation strategies, 1918–1920 pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/12/pdfs/06-0506.pdf. Accessed July 2018.
  21. 21.
    Ishola, DA, Phin N. Could influenza transmission be reduced by restricting mass gatherings? Towards an evidence-based policy framework. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2011;1(1):33–60. ISSN 2210-6006.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jegh.2011.06.004.
  22. 22.
    Chowell G, Echevarría-Zuno S, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Tamerius J, Miller MA, Borja-Aburto VH. Characterizing the epidemiology of the 2009 influenza a/H1N1 pandemic in Mexico. PLoS Med. 2011;8(5):e1000436.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000436.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rousculp MD, et al. Attending work while sick: implication of flexible sick leave policies. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52(10):1009–13.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181f43844. PMID: 20881626, Issn Print: 1076-2752, Publication Date: 2010/10/01.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ferguson NM, et al. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature. 2006;442  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04795.
  25. 25.
    Cetron M, Maloney S, Koppaka R, et al. Isolation and quarantine: containment strategies for Sars 2003. In: Knobler S, Mahmoud A, Lemon S, et al., editors. Institute of Medicine (US) forum on microbial threats. Learning from SARS: preparing for the next disease outbreak: workshop summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US); 2004. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92450/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.North Shore University HospitalManhassetUSA

Personalised recommendations