Endocrine Disorders

  • Alessandra GambineriEmail author
  • Paola Altieri
  • Daniela Ibarra-Gasparini


The different balance in the sex hormones, androgens and estrogens, is a cardinal aspect of the biology of gender difference and plays a fundamental role in maintaining the physiological state at each age of life [1]. However, the imbalance in sex hormones is involved in some metabolic diseases, with androgens playing an interesting sexually dimorphic role. The sexual dimorphism of androgens in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders leads to inequalities in both preventive strategies and treatment between women and men.


Metabolic syndrome Diabetes Androgens Estrogens Gender 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandra Gambineri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paola Altieri
    • 1
  • Daniela Ibarra-Gasparini
    • 1
  1. 1.Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Science, S. Orsola-Malpighi HospitalAlma Mater University of BolognaBolognaItaly

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