Fabric: A Missing Link Between Critical State and Critical State Theory

  • A. I. TheocharisEmail author
  • E. Vairaktaris
  • Y. F. Dafalias
  • A. G. Papadimitriou
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering book series (SSGG)


The Critical State Theory of Roscoe et al. [1] and Schofield and Wroth [2], proposed two analytical conditions as necessary and sufficient for soil to reach and maintain Critical State. In this work the sufficiency of these two conditions is challenged by the results of a virtual experiment performed by means of the Discrete Element Method, where stress principal axes rotation is imposed at Critical State of a granular sample. The fabric emerges as the important entity that can explain the lack of sufficiency of the two conditions and serve as a link between Critical State Theory and Critical State as a physical event. The recently developed Anisotropic Critical State Theory includes an additional condition on fabric, that combined with the classical two provide a triplet of necessary and sufficient conditions for reaching and maintaining Critical State.


Critical state Fabric DEM Anisotropic critical state theory 



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC IDEAS Grant Agreement n 290963 (SOMEF) and partial support by NSF project CMMI-1162096. The paper is submitted on the occasion of the 80th birthday of Professor G. Gudehus.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. I. Theocharis
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. Vairaktaris
    • 1
  • Y. F. Dafalias
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. G. Papadimitriou
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Department of MechanicsNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  3. 3.School of Civil Engineering, Department of Geotechnical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

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