Advertisement

Climate Change, Disease and Gender Gaps in Human Capital Investment

Chapter
Part of the Gender, Development and Social Change book series (GDSC)

Abstract

The goal of this chapter is to examine the role of climate-induced disease in widening the gender gap in human capital investment. This chapter reviews the literature on climate change, disease and gender gaps, and highlights evidence from a particular disease context—the meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa. It provides evidence that changes in the seasonal climate, through the dry season or Harmattan period, are strongly associated with meningitis epidemics in the region. It discusses results from research on the role of Niger’s 1986 meningitis epidemic in reducing girls’ education relative to boys. It highlights the income effects of the epidemic and, specifically, early marriage of girls in exchange for a bride price as a primary mechanism driving the results. The findings underline the need for more research on the interaction between climate change, health and education and gender equality, all major parts of the Sustainable Development Goals.

References

  1. Abdussalam, A. F., Monaghan, A. J., Steinhoff, D. F., Dukic, V. M., Hayden, M. H., Hopson, T. M., et al. (2014). The Impact of Climate Change on Meningitis in Northwest Nigeria: An Assessment Using CMIP5 Climate Model Simulations. Weather, Climate, and Society, 6(3), 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afifi, T. (2011). Economic or Environmental Migration? The Push Factors in Niger. International Migration, 49(s1), e95–e124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archibong, B., & Annan, F. (2017). Disease and Gender Gaps in Human Capital Investment: Evidence from Niger’s 1986 Meningitis Epidemic. American Economic Review, 107(5), 530–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Archibong, B., & Annan, F. (2018). Harmattan Winds, Disease and Gender Gaps in Human Capital Investment. Working Paper.Google Scholar
  5. Ashraf, N., Bau, N., Nunn, N., & Voena, A. (2016). Bride Price and Female Education. Technical Report National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  6. Barro, R. J., & Lee, J. W. (2013). A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010. Journal of Development Economics, 104, 184–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartlett, S. (2008). Climate Change and Urban Children: Impacts and Implications for Adaptation in Low-and Middle-Income Countries. Environment and Urbanization, 20(2), 501–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Björkman-Nyqvist, Martina. (2013). Income Shocks and Gender Gaps in Education: Evidence from Uganda. Journal of Development Economics, 105, 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Broome, C. V., Rugh, M. A., Yada, A. A., Giat, L. V., Giat, H., Zeltner, J. M., et al. (1983). Epidemic Group C Meningococcal Meningitis in Upper Volta, 1979. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 61(2), 325.Google Scholar
  10. Cho, R. (2014). How Climate Change Is Exacerbating the Spread of Disease. Technical Report.Google Scholar
  11. Corno, L., Hildebrandt, N., Voena, A., et al. (2016). Weather Shocks, Age of Marriage and the Direction of Marriage Payments. Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  12. Corno, L., & Voena, A. (2015). Selling Daughters: Age of Marriage, Income Shocks and Bride Price Tradition. Rockwool Foundation Research Unit.Google Scholar
  13. Dercon, S., & Krishnan, P. (2000). In Sickness and In Health: Risk Sharing Within Households in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Political Economy, 108(4), 688–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Epstein, P. R. (1999). Climate and Health. Science, 285(5426), 347–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Epstein, P. R. (2000). Is Global Warming Harmful to Health? Scientific American, 283(2), 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glewwe, P., & Miguel, E. A. (2007). The Impact of Child Health and Nutrition on Education in Less Developed Countries. Handbook of Development Economics, 4, 3561–3606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartmann-Mahmud, L. (2011). Pounding Millet During School Hours: Obstacles to Girls? Formal Education in Niger. The European Journal of Development Research, 23(3), 354–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoogeveen, J., Van der Klaauw, B., & Van Lomwel, G. (2011). On the Timing of Marriage, Cattle, and Shocks. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 60(1), 121–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. LaForce, F. M., Ravenscroft, N., Djingarey, M., & Viviani, S. (2009). Epidemic Meningitis Due to Group A Neisseria Meningitidis in the African Meningitis Belt. Vaccine, 27, B13–B19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Loaiza Sr, E., & Wong, S. (2012). Marrying Too Young. End Child Marriage. UNFPA Report.Google Scholar
  21. Institute of Development Studies, & Brody, A. (2008). Gender and Climate Change: Mapping the Linkages—A Scoping Study on Knowledge and Gaps. Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  22. Perez Garcia Pando, C., Stanton, M. C., Diggle, P. J., Trzaska, S., Miller, R. L., Perlwitz, J. P., Baldasano, J.´e. M., Cuevas, E., Ceccato, P., Yaka, P., et al. (2014a). Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(7), 679–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Perez Garcia Pando, C., Thomson, M. C., Stanton, M. C., Diggle, P. J., Hopson, T., Pandya, R., et al. (2014b). Meningitis and Climate: From Science to Practice. Earth Perspectives, 1(1), 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pradhan, E. K., West, K. P., Katz, J., LeClerq, S. C., Khatry, S. K., & Shrestha, S. R. (2007). Risk of Flood-Related Mortality in Nepal. Disasters, 31(1), 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rajaraman, I. (1983). Economics of Bride-Price and Dowry. Economic and Political Weekly, 18(8), 275–279.Google Scholar
  26. Schultz, T. P. (2002). Why Governments Should Invest More to Educate Girls. World Development, 30(2), 207–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sultan, B., Labadi, K., Gu´egan, J.-F.¸c., & Janicot, S. (2005). Climate Drives the Meningitis Epidemics Onset in West Africa. PLoS Medicine, 2(1), e6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. UN Women, United Nations, et al. (2015). Progress of the World’s Women 2015–2016: Transforming Economies, Realizing Rights. Technical Report.Google Scholar
  29. Wendo, C. (2004). African Women Denounce Bride Price. Lancet, 363(9410), 716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. World Health Organization, et al. (2014). Gender, Climate Change and Health. World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  31. Wu, X., Lu, Y., Zhou, S., Chen, L., & Xu, B. (2016). Impact of Climate Change on Human Infectious Diseases: Empirical Evidence and Human Adaptation. Environment International, 86, 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yaka, P., Sultan, B., Broutin, H., Janicot, S., Philippon, S., & Fourquet, N. (2008). Relationships Between Climate and Year-to-Year Variability in Meningitis Outbreaks: A Case Study in Burkina Faso and Niger. International Journal of Health Geographics, 7(1), 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Barnard CollegeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations