• Yoram KrozerEmail author
  • Michael Narodoslawsky


Economy is comprehended as circular systems of transactions that reflect what people really pay, rather than what they aspire to. Various properties of bioresources are underestimated in the economic systems because they are not expressed in money; for instance the properties that bioresources are non-exhaustible, replenish nature because provide nutrients for new life, store and degradation of pollution and so on. Those ethical attributes that address the care for nature are increasingly demanded even though many highly valued attributes that contribute to welfare have no market prices. Despite this deficiency in all economies, many valuable uses of bioresources refer to the care for nature. Even more opportunities can be found when those benign properties of bioresources are valued in transactions. This leads people to gain knowledge about the various uses of bioresources, and the liabilities for damages to other interests or nature, which is possible if environmental qualities are integrated in all transactions.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Twente - CSTM, Enschede and Sustainable Innovations AcademyAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute of Process and Particle Engineering, Graz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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