Bioresources for Cultural Services

  • Yoram KrozerEmail author
  • Maia Lordkipanidze


Bioresources contribute to the regulation of environmental qualities, provide energy, food, other materials; deliver cultural values that encompass basic resources for scientific, artistic, and educational inspiration; support esthetical, ethical, and spiritual behavior, as well as foster tranquility, relaxation, leisure, quality of life, and suchlike amenities. Although the consumption of bioresources is usually associated with the uses of materials, the consumption value of the non-material activities in cultural ecosystem services is fast growing in terms of scientific interest and economic development. They refer to spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reflection, leisure and recreation, as well as ethical and esthetic experiences. Herewith, the uses of bioresources for health, tourism, and education are introduced with a focus on urban areas where most people in the world live.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Twente - CSTM, Enschede and Sustainable Innovations AcademyAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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