TIRADS Classification as a Malignancy Risk Stratification System
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The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) is based on the ranking of a set of ultrasound signs that are most common in various thyroid pathology. The characteristics of thyroid nodules, such as clarity and regularity of margins, echogenicity, echostructure, and presence of macro- and microcalcifications, composed the basic elements of the system. It permits standardization of thyroid ultrasound reports, thus reducing the subjective aspects in the interpretation of ultrasound images. TIRADS and its modifications significantly improved the detection of thyroid tumors. European researchers presented Euro-TIRADS (EU-TIRADS). The American College of Radiologists (ACR) proposed an alternative model. Its feature is that ultrasound signs have ranking in accordance with their importance for diagnosis. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommended five patterns of sonographic image based on a significantly smaller number of ultrasound signs and corresponding with the risk of malignancy. Consensus statement and recommendations published by Korean scientists implied the concept of the Korean thyroid image reporting and data system (K-TIRADS). The British Thyroid Association (BTA) published their version of TIRADS—BTA thyroid nodule ultrasound (U) classification. The work on improving the efficiency of stratification systems is still in progress.
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