Ultrasound Diagnosis of Thyroid Carcinoma



Thyroid cancer is a malignant tumor developing from follicular or C cells. It is a relatively uncommon disease. However, it accounts for about 1.5–2% of all head and neck malignancies and 1–4% of all malignant tumors. The chapter confers several thyroid cancer classifications, such as current WHO classification, TNM classification, and AJCC prognostic stage grouping. MEN syndromes that implicate thyroid cancer are also discussed. Papillary cancer is the most common morphological type, accounting for 55–75% of all cases. US features that are suspicious for thyroid malignancy are specified. The greatest probability (77%) is achieved with the combination of decreased echodensity, irregular shape, indistinct borders, and irregular contours. Color pattern in thyroid cancer with ultrasound elastography is hard, intense, and heterogeneous. Heterogeneous contrast enhancement with CEUS is a specific sign of a malignant process. The clinical significance of subcentimeter thyroid carcinomas is still the subject of discussion. According to the European consensus for the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, micronodules (≤1 cm) carry a very low risk of morbidity even if malignant and should be submitted to FNAB only in the event of suspicious finding at US or personal history. According to AACE/ACE/AME Guidelines, US evaluation is not recommended as a screening test for the general population or patients with a normal thyroid on palpation and a low clinical risk of thyroid disease.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Visual and Functional DiagnosticsNational Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Ultrasound Diagnostics DepartmentMedical Diagnostic CenterMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsCenter for Radiological Diagnostics of Non-State Healthcare Institution Yaroslavl Railway Clinic of JSC “Russian Railways”YaroslavlRussia
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryFederal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education Yaroslavl State Medical University of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationYaroslavlRussia
  5. 5.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsKazan State Medical Academy – Branch Campus of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Further Professional Education, “Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education” of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationKazanRussia
  6. 6.Department for Internal Diseases PropaedeuticCourse of Diagnostic Radiology of Medical Faculty of Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University”CheboksaryRussia

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