Ultrasound Diagnosis in Benign Thyroid Lesions



Thyroid nodules are detected in 4–15% of the population. The nodules are observed in more than 50% of patients with thyroid pathology; the incidence of nodules can reach 98.9% in endemic regions. Thyroid lesions include both colloid nodules and tumors. Obligatory US features of colloid nodule are well-defined margins and intact capsule. Long-lasting colloid nodules may contain coarse calcifications and shell-shaped or egg-shell peripheral impregnations. They show a peripheral pattern of blood flow in CDI. Qualitative and quantitative data of ultrasound elastography commonly reveal medium stiffness. Colloid nodules are often associated with iodine deficiency and account for 60–75% of all thyroid lesions. Thyroid cysts are thin-walled cavitary lesions filled with fluid (commonly, colloid). True cysts with flat epithelium lining make up <0.5% of all thyroid lesions. The predominant benign thyroid tumor is follicular adenoma. Adenomas occupy 16–25% of all thyroid lesions. They are typically represented by a solitary nodule. Thyroid adenomas tend to grow fast, so they are normally large (over 2–3 cm in size) by the time they are diagnosed. The majority of adenomas show a peripheral hypoechoic ring (halo) in grayscale sonography and a typical vascular pattern in CDI and PDI with perinodular and intranodular hypervascularization.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Visual and Functional DiagnosticsNational Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsCenter for Radiological Diagnostics of Non-State Healthcare Institution Yaroslavl Railway Clinic of JSC “Russian Railways”YaroslavlRussia
  3. 3.Department for Internal Diseases PropaedeuticCourse of Diagnostic Radiology of Medical Faculty of Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University”CheboksaryRussia
  4. 4.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsKazan State Medical Academy – Branch Campus of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Further Professional Education, “Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education” of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationKazanRussia
  5. 5.Ultrasound Diagnostics DepartmentMedical Diagnostic CenterMoscowRussia

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