Ultrasound Image of the Normal Thyroid Gland



The thyroid gland is normally located in the midline of the neck about 1–3 cm above the breastbone and clavicle. It consists of right and left lobes and the isthmus. Traditionally accepted that the normal volume of the thyroid gland in adults is 7.7–25 cm3 in men and 4.4–18 cm3 in women. Sonographically, normal thyroid shows isoechoic homogeneous echostructure, accurate regular margins, and an echogenic capsule. Echodensity of the thyroid parenchyma is usually compared with the echodensity of the normal submandibular salivary gland and is isoechoic. It has higher echodensity than the neck muscles. The structure of the glandular tissue is homogeneous. Individual color spots in thyroid parenchyma are normally detected with CDI and PDI. They may be of various sizes and are usually rather symmetric with a relatively uniform distribution. The average color pixel density in a normal thyroid is 5–15%. Normal thyroid parenchyma exhibits uniform medium elasticity with compression ultrasound elastography. It is evenly colored with fine- and medium-grained texture, quite symmetrical in all aspects. Quantitatively assessed, it exhibits the average Young’s modulus and an average shear wave velocity of the Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification technology (ARFI).


  1. 1.
    Netter FH, Hansen JT. Atlas of human anatomy. 3rd ed. Teterboro: Icon Learning Systems; 2003.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gutekunst R, Becker W, Hehrmann R, et al. Ultraschalldiagnostik der Schilddrüse. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1988;113:1109–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parshin VS, Tarasova GP, Glotov PI. Ultrasonic screening in the diagnosis of diseases of the thyroid gland. Methodical aspects and efficiency. Visualizaciya Clinice. 1999;14-15:1–7.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lelyuk VG, Lelyuk SE. Some methodological aspects of complex thyroid ultrasound. Moscow: Springer; 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Markova NV. The value of ultrasound angiography in the diagnosis of the main diseases of the thyroid gland. PhD thesis. Moscow; 2001.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Struchkova TY. Parameters of blood flow in the lower and upper thyroid arteries. Normative values. In: Abstracts of the 4th Congress of the Russian Association of Specialists in Ultrasound Diagnostics in Medicine. Moscow, 2003. pp. 221–2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arda K, Ciledag N, Aktas E, et al. Quantitative assessment of normal soft-tissue elasticity using shear-wave ultrasound elastography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197(3):532–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim I, Kim EK, Yoon JH, et al. Diagnostic role of conventional ultrasonography and shear wave elastography in asymptomatic patients with diffuse thyroid disease: initial experience with 57 patients. Yonsei Med J. 2014;55(1):247–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sebag F, Vaillant-Lombard J, Berbis J, et al. Shear wave elastography: a new ultrasound imaging mode for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(12):5281–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pomortsev AV, Gudkov GV, Degtyareva YS, et al. Possibilities of shear wave elastography in differential diagnostics of focal thyroid pathology. Radiat Diagn Ther. 2011;3:60–66 (Article in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Monpeyssen H, Tramalloni J, Poiree S, et al. Elastography of the thyroid. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2013;94(5):535–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mitkov VV, Ivanishina TV, Mitkova MD. Ultrasound examination of the unchanged thyroid gland with the use of shear wave elastography technology. Ultrazvukovaya i funkcionalnaya diagnostika. 2014;6:13–20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics of the Center for Radiological DiagnosticsNon-State Healthcare Institution “Yaroslavl Railway Clinic of JSC “Russian Railways”YaroslavlRussia
  2. 2.Department of Visual and Functional Diagnostics of National Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and PerinatologyMinistry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Ultrasound Diagnostics DepartmentMedical Diagnostic CenterMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsCenter for Radiological Diagnostics of Non-State Healthcare Institution Yaroslavl Railway Clinic of JSC “Russian Railways”YaroslavlRussia
  5. 5.Department for Internal Diseases Propaedeutic, Course of Diagnostic Radiology of Medical Faculty of Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University”CheboksaryRussia
  6. 6.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsKazan State Medical Academy – Branch Campus of the Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Further Professional Education, “Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education” of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian FederationKazanRussia

Personalised recommendations