Disorders of the Small Bowel

Part of the Clinical Gastroenterology book series (CG)


Gastrointestinal manifestations in HIV-infected patients constitute a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of ART, the incidence of opportunistic infectious diarrhea has decreased significantly. Chronic diarrhea is frequently seen in patients with advanced disease, causing complications such as severe malnutrition, dehydration, predisposal to secondary infections, and in some cases can be life threatening (Wilcox and Saag, Gut 57:861–870, 2008; Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents [Internet]. [cited 2018 Dec 11]. Available from:, 2017). Differentiation between infectious and noninfectious causes is key to improve patient survival as well as quality of life. Besides diagnostic-guided treatment when appropriate, prompt institution of ART is recommended in a majority of cases (Bennett et al., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases, 2015; Oldfield, Rev Gastroenterol Disord 2(4):176–188, 2002).


HIV Gastrointestinal Immunocompromised Infection Opportunistic Diarrhea 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Connecticut School of MedicineFarmingtonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious DiseasesThe Hospital of Central ConnecticutNew BritainUSA

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