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Smugglers and Smuggling Routes

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Once the animals have been poached, these are the key components of the next stage of the illegal trade.


  • Ivory smugglers
  • Ivory smuggling routes
  • Rhino smuggling hubs
  • ETIS
  • Airports

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  1. 1.

    Milliken T. and Shaw, J. (2012) The South Africa – Viet Nam Rhino Trade Nexus: A deadly combination of institutional lapses, corrupt wildlife industry professionals and Asian crime syndicates. TRAFFIC, Johannesburg, South Africa, p.32.

  2. 2.

    TRAFFIC research in South Africa, 2012.

  3. 3.

    Smith, 2012b in Milliken and Shaw (n.1).

  4. 4.

    Moneron, S., Okes, N. and Rademeyer, J. Pendants, Powder and Pathways, TRAFFIC, East/Southern Africa Regional Office, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa, p.10.

  5. 5.

    Jo Hastie, Julian Newman and Mary Rice Back in Business: Elephant Poaching and the Ivory Black Markets of Asia Environmental Investigation Agency, 2002, p.3.

  6. 6.


  7. 7.

    Varun Vira, Thomas Ewing and Jackson Miller Out of Africa: Mapping the Global Trade in Illicit Elephant Ivory Commissioned by Born Free and carried out by C4ADS, published 2014.

  8. 8.


  9. 9.

    Ibid, see p.20.

  10. 10.


  11. 11.

    Rossi A. (2018). Uganda Wildlife Trafficking Assessment. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

  12. 12.

    The UNODC Wildlife Crime Report 2016 in Rossi (n.152).

  13. 13.

    Rossi (n.11).

  14. 14.

    Nowell et al. 1992 in Milliken and Shaw (n.1).

  15. 15.

    Milliken and Shaw (n.1).

  16. 16.

    Ibid, p.133.

  17. 17.

    TRAFFIC monitoring 2011 in Milliken and Shaw (n.1), p.133.

  18. 18.

    Ibid, Khong and Quang 2008.

  19. 19.

    Robertson in Symposium on Combating Wildlife Crime: Securing Enforcement , Ensuring Justice, and Upholding the Rule of Law . The Proceedings Editors Kala K. Mulqueeny and Francesse Joy J. Cordon, 2014.

  20. 20.


  21. 21.


  22. 22.

    TRAFFIC Bulletin, April, p.28.

  23. 23.

    Milliken Tom Elephants Report of 16th CITES Meeting, TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 25 No.2, October 2013, p.60.

  24. 24.

    Daniel Stiles Ivory Trafficking in California, USA 2014.

  25. 25.

    Environmental Investigation Agency The Shuidong Connection: Exposing the global hub of the illegal ivory trade 2017.

  26. 26.

    Ibid, p.2.

  27. 27.

    Ibid, p.7.

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Martin, B. (2019). Smugglers and Smuggling Routes. In: Survival or Extinction?. Springer, Cham.

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