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Evaluating Impacts of Deep Oil Spills on Oceanic Marine Mammals

  • Kaitlin E. FrasierEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill may be indicative of future large, deep spills that may occur in the coming decades. Given that future deepwater spills are possible, critical considerations include (1) establishing baselines for oceanic marine mammal and populations in at-risk areas, (2) understanding the implications of response choices for oceanic marine mammals, (3) designing studies with adequate coverage for post-spill monitoring, and (4) identifying effective strategies for oceanic marine mammal restoration. In this chapter, we consider these four stages in the context of a series of hypothetical oil spill scenarios, identifying ways that lessons learned from the DWH oil spill and prior events can be applied to future disasters.

Keywords

Marine mammal Sperm whale Beaked whale Dolphin Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) Megafauna Mammal Odontocete Bryde’s whale Spotted dolphin Stenella Kogia Echolocation Visual survey Ship strike Noise Air gun HARP Mississippi Canyon Green Canyon Risso’s dolphin Pilot whale Tag Aerial survey Habitat model Loop Current AUV Satellite Genetic Monitoring Dispersant Hazing Deterrent NRDA Cetacean Disturbance NOAA Stock Restoration Mexico Seismic 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Collaborators John A. Hildebrand and Alba Solsona Berga from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography contributed substantially to the ideas discussed in this review.

This research was made possible by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative/C-IMAGE I, II, and III. Funding for HARP data collection and analysis was also provided by the Natural Resource Damage Assessment partners (20105138), the US Marine Mammal Commission (20104755/E4061753), the Southeast Fisheries Science Center under the Cooperative Institute for Marine Ecosystems and Climate (NA10OAR4320156) with support through Interagency Agreement #M11PG00041 between the Bureau of Offshore Energy Management, Environmental Studies Program, and the National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center. The analyses and opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the funding entities. The data used for this study are archived by the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative at https://data.gulfresearchinitiative.org/data/R4.x267.180:0011 maintained by the Gulf Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of California San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Marine Physical LaboratoryLa JollaUSA

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