Skip to main content

Α Historical Mortars Study Assisted by GIS Technologies

  • 1406 Accesses

Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS,volume 961)


Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have a vital role on broadening the understanding of the relationship of space, place, and culture. In recent years, a steady increase in the use of GIS in the fields of Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management can be attested [1]. GIS has nowadays become one of the most versatile and comprehensive analytical tools in Archaeology in terms of handling archaeological data and exploring human space [2].

In this paper we will present the contribution of GIS in the study of the historical mortars of one of the most important castles in the Peloponnese, the castle of Androusa in Messenia. GIS was used in the documentation of the fortification of the castle and in the organization and archiving of the analyses of mortars. An interactive database was created, including the fortification ground plan, photographs and the results of the analytical study of eleven mortar samples. This database offers an easy access platform of the archiving data, with the potential of continuous update, while maintaining the historical and archaeological data in the same time.


  • Castle of Androusa
  • Mortars
  • Construction phases
  • GIS
  • Interactive database

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   39.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD   54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


  1. 1.

    The Chronicle of Morea is a long history text that contains a great amount of information regarding the Frankish conquest of mainland Greece. It was probably first written in French, but there are also versions in Greek, Italian and Aragonese, all of which have slight differences [15].

  2. 2.

    The Aragonese version of the Chronicle of Morea mentions in paragraph 216: «…et en la castelania de Calamata fizo fer el castiello de Druges…» (meaning the castle of Androusa) [3].

  3. 3.

    Old maps constitute a valuable source of information regarding the historical landscape. In recent years, they are widely used in archaeology, mainly due to the rapid increase of the use of GIS and the potentials it offers [9].

  4. 4.

    The correlation of the maps was based on the coordinates of the digitized fortification plan of the topographical map, provided by the Ephorate of Antiquities of Messenia since it was more accurate.


  1. Petrescu, F.: The use of GIS technology in cultural heritage. In: Georgopoulos, A. (ed.) XXI International CIPA Symposium, Athens (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Tsiafakis, D., Evagelidis, V.: GIS as an Interpretative Tool in Greek Archaeological Research. Nottingham (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Fernández de Heredia, J., Morel-Fatio, A.: Chapitre VI: Citation de G. de La Roche. In: Morel-Fatio, A. Libro de los Derechos et Conquistas del Principado de la Morea. Imprimerie Jules -Guillaume Fick. Geneva (1885)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 26th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities: Κάστρο Ανδρούσας - Τροποποιητική Μελέτη Νότιου Τείχους. Ministry of Culture and Sports. Kalamata (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Ephorate of Antiquities of Messenia: Restoration of the eastern section of the Androusa castle. Ιnformation brochure. Ministry of Culture and Sports. Kalamata (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Vryonis, P.: The castle of Androusa: Characterization of mortars and application of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Master Thesis. University of the Peloponnese, Kalamata (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Box, P.: GIS and Cultural Resource Management: Manual for Heritage Managers. UNESCO, Bangkok (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hadjimitsis, D.G., Themistokleous, K., Ioannides, M., Clayton, C.: The registration and monitoring of cultural heritage sites in the Cyprus landscape using GIS and satellite remote sensing. In: The 7th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. VAST (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cajthaml, J., Pacina, J.: Old maps as source of landscape changes, georeferencing, accuracy and error detections. In: 15th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo-Conference SGEM 2015, pp. 1004–1009 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bon, A.: La Moree Franque recherches historiques, topographiques et archaeologiques sur la principalite d’ Achaie (1205–1430). Edditions E De Boccard, Paris (1969)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Malaric, I., Gasparovic, M.: GIS of the Crikvenica - “Igraliste” Archaeological Site. Kartografija i Geoinformacije, Zagreb (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Tantillo, M.D.: GIS application in archaelogical site of Solunto. In: XXI International CIPA Symposium, Athens (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Khan, Z.L., et al.: Geoinformatics for cultural heritage mapping - A case study of Srinagar city, Jammu and Kashmir. Int. J. Technol. Res. Eng. 2, 1234–1241 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Sarris, A., Déderix, S.: GIS for archaeology and cultural heritage management in Greece. Quo Vadis? In: Zacharias, N. (ed.) 3rd Symposium Archaeological Research and New Technologies ARCH_RNT. University of the Peloponnese, Kalamata (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Hetherington, P.: Byzantine and Medieval Greece – Churches, Castles and Art οf the Mainland Peloponnese. John Murray Ltd., London (1991)

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors of the paper are thankful to the personnel of the Ephorate of Antiquities of Messenia for providing access to the archaeological and bibliographical material.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Panagiotis Vryonis .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Vryonis, P., Malaperdas, G., Palamara, E., Zacharias, N. (2019). Α Historical Mortars Study Assisted by GIS Technologies. In: Moropoulou, A., Korres, M., Georgopoulos, A., Spyrakos, C., Mouzakis, C. (eds) Transdisciplinary Multispectral Modeling and Cooperation for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage. TMM_CH 2018. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 961. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-12956-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-12957-6

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)