The Academic Setting

  • Maxim Tabachnik


This chapter briefly introduces scholarly debates in the field of nationalism, on the one hand, still split between modernists and their critics, and on the other, divided over the nature, typology and history of the nation and nationalism. It also proposes to distinguish between “civic” and “territorial nationalisms” in its own theoretical approach to the ethnic/civic dichotomy, taking into the account critiques of civic nationalism, in order to apply the dichotomy to the research puzzle.


  1. Aasland, Aadne. 2002. Citizenship Status and Social Exclusion in Estonia and Latvia. Journal of Baltic Studies 33(1): 57–77.Google Scholar
  2. Aliyev, Shahin. 2014. Chief of the Department of Questions of the Legislation and Legal Expertise of Administration of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Interview by Maxim Tabachnik. In person. Baku. October 28.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  4. Barrington, Lowell. 1995. The Domestic and International Consequences of Citizenship in the Soviet Successor States. Europe-Asia Studies 47(5): 731–763.Google Scholar
  5. Bereketeab, Redie. 2012. The Ethnic and Civic Basis of Citizenship in the Horn of Africa. In Predicaments in the Horn of Africa: 10 Years of SIRC Conferences in Lund on the Horn of Africa. Ulf Johansson Dahre, ed. Pp. 313–330. Lund, Sweden: Lund University., accessed December 14, 2016.
  6. Bertocchi, Graziella, and Chiara Strozzi. 2004. Citizenship Laws and International Migration in Historical Perspective. Modena, Italy: Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia.Google Scholar
  7. Bjorklund, Fredrika. 2006. The East European ‘Ethnic Nation’—Myth or Reality? European Journal of Political Research 45(1): 93–121.Google Scholar
  8. Breton, Raymond. 1988. From Ethnic to Civic Nationalism: English Canada and Quebec. Ethnic and Racial Studies 11(1): 85–102.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, David. 1999. Are There Good and Bad Nationalisms? Nations and Nationalism 5(2): 281–302.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, David. 2007. Ethnic Conflict and Civic Nationalism: A Model. In Identity Matters: Ethnic and Sectarian Conflict. James L. Peacock, Patricia M. Thornton, and Patrick B. Inman, eds. Pp. 15–33. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  11. Brubaker, Rogers. 1990. Immigration, Citizenship, and the Nation-State in France and Germany: A Comparative Historical Analysis. International Sociology 5(4): 379–407.Google Scholar
  12. Brubaker, Rogers. 1992. Citizenship Struggles in Soviet Successor States. International Migration Review 26(2): 269–291.Google Scholar
  13. Brubaker, Rogers. 1999. The Manichean Myth: Rethinking the Distinction Between “Civic” and “Ethnic” Nationalism. In Nation and National Identity: The European Experience in Perspective. Hanspeter Kriesl, Klaus Armingeon, Hannes Slegrist, and Andreas Wimmer, eds. Pp. 55–71. Chur and Zurich: Verlag Ruegger.Google Scholar
  14. Cahn, Claude. 2012. Minorities, Citizenship and Statelessness in Europe. European Journal of Migration and Law 14: 297–316.Google Scholar
  15. Calhoun, Craig. 1997. Nationalism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  16. Calhoun, Craig. 2005. Nationalism. In Encyclopedia of Social Theory. George Ritzer, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., accessed September 9, 2016.
  17. Cărăuş, Tamara. 2001. National Identity: Invention or Necessity? Case Study: Republic of Moldova. New Europe College Yearbook 9: 15–74.Google Scholar
  18. Coleman, John. 1995. A Nation of Citizens. In Religion and Nationalism. John Coleman and Miklós Tomka, eds. London: SCM Press; Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.Google Scholar
  19. Dragunskii, Denis V. 1994. Imposed Ethnicity. Sociological Research 33(5): 65–76.Google Scholar
  20. Duignan, Peter, and L. H. Gann. 1983. The Middle East and North Africa: The Challenge to Western Security. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dumbravă, Costică. 2007. Citizenship Regulations In Eastern Europe: Acquisition of Citizenship at Birth and Through Regular Naturalization in Sixteen Postcommunist Countries. CEU Political Science Journal 2(4): 450–472.Google Scholar
  22. Durkheim, Émile. 1951. Suicide, a Study in Sociology. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Feldman, Gregory. 2005. Culture, State, and Security in Europe: The Case of Citizenship and Integration Policy in Estonia. American Ethnologist 32(4): 676–694.Google Scholar
  24. Franck, Thomas. 1997. Tribe, Nation, World: Self-Identification in the Evolving International System. Ethics & International Affairs 11(1): 151–169.Google Scholar
  25. Freni, Salvatore. 2011. Georgia as an Ethnic Democracy: A Study on the Azerbaijani and Armenian Minorities Under Mikheil Saakashvili. University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
  26. Gasca, Viorelia. 2012. Country Report: Moldova. Florence, Italy: EUDO Citizenship Observatory.
  27. Gat, Azar. 2013. Nations: The Long History and Deep Roots of Political Ethnicity and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  29. Goodman, Sara. 2010. Integration Requirements for Integration’s Sake? Identifying, Categorising and Comparing Civic Integration Policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(5): 753–772.Google Scholar
  30. Gorski, P. S. 2006. Pre-modern Nationalism: An Oxymoron? The Evidence from England. In The SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalisms. Gerard Delanty and Krishan Kumar, ed. Pp. 143–156. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Greenfeld, Liah. 1993. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Guibernau, Montserrat. 1996. Nationalisms: The Nation-State and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  33. Habermas, Jürgen. 1998. The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hastings, Adrian. 1997. The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion, and Nationalism. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Hechter, Michael. 2000. Containing Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Heckmann, Friedrich, and Dominique Schnapper. 2003. Conclusion. In The Integration of Immigrants in European Societies: National Differences and Trends of Convergence. Friedrich Heckmann and Dominique Schnapper, eds. Pp. 253–260. Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius DE.Google Scholar
  37. Hobsbawm, Eric. 1990. Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Howard, Marc Morje. 2009. The Politics of Citizenship in Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hutchinson, John, and Anthony D. Smith, eds. 1994. Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Ignatieff, Michael. 1994. Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
  41. Janmaat, Jan Germen. 2006. Popular Conceptions of Nationhood in Old and New European Member States: Partial Support for the Ethnic-Civic Framework. Ethnic and Racial Studies 29: 50–78.Google Scholar
  42. Janoski, Thomas. 2010. The Ironies of Citizenship: Naturalization and Integration in Indistrialized Countries. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, F. L., and Philip Smith. 2001. Individual and Societal Bases of National Identity. A Comparative Multi‐Level Analysis. European Sociological Review 17(2): 103–118.Google Scholar
  44. Joppke, Christian. 2007. Beyond National Models: Civic Integration Policies for Immigrants in Western Europe. West European Politics 30(1): 1–22.Google Scholar
  45. Kaufmann, Eric. 1999. American Exceptionalism Reconsidered: Anglo-Saxon Ethnogenesis in the Nation, 1776–1850. Journal of American Studies 33(03): 437–457.Google Scholar
  46. Keating, Michael. 1996. Nations Against the State. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Kohn, Hans. 1944. The Idea of Nationalism, a Study in Its Origins and Background. Stated First Print. New York: Macmillan Company.Google Scholar
  48. Kohn, Hans. 1962. The Age of Nationalism: The First Era of Global History. 1st ed. World Perspectives, v. 28. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  49. Kohn, Hans. 1965. Nationalism, Its Meaning and History. Princeton: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  50. Kohn, Hans. 1994. Western and Eastern Nationalisms. In Nationalism. John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Koning, Edward A. 2011. Ethnic and Civic Dealings with Newcomers: Naturalization Policies and Practices in Twenty-Six Immigration Countries. Ethnic and Racial Studies 34: 1974–1994.Google Scholar
  52. Koopmans, Ruud. 2005. Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  53. Koopmans, Ruud, Ines Michalowski, and Stine Waibel. 2012. Citizenship Rights for Immigrants: National Political Processes and Cross-National Convergence in Western Europe, 1980–2008. American Journal of Sociology 117(4): 1202–1245.Google Scholar
  54. Kunovich, Robert M. 2009. The Sources and Consequences of National Identification. American Sociological Review 74(573): 573–593.Google Scholar
  55. Kuzio, Taras. 2002. The Myth of the Civic State: A Critical Survey of Hans Kohn’s Framework for Understanding Nationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies 25(1): 20–39.Google Scholar
  56. Kymlicka, Will. 1999. Misunderstanding Nationalism. In Theorizing Nationalism. Ronald Beiner, ed. Pp. 131–140. SUNY Series in Political Theory. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  57. Kymlicka, Will. 2001. Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Lachmann, Richard. 2000. Capitalists in Spite of Themselves: Elite Conflict and Economic Transitions in Early Modern Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Landau, Jacob M., and Barbara Kellner-Heinkele. 2011. Language Politics in Contemporary Central Asia: National and Ethnic Identity and the Soviet Legacy. London and New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  60. Larin, Stephen J. 2010. Conceptual Debates in Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Migration. In The International Studies Encyclopedia. Robert Denemark, ed. Pp. 438–457. Rochester, NY: Wiley-Blackwell., accessed December 5, 2016.
  61. Larin, Stephen J. 2012. Challenging the Civic Nation. Queen’s University.Google Scholar
  62. Máiz, Ramón. 2004. Per Modum Unius: Más Allá de La Dicotomía Nacionalismo Cívico vs. Nacionalismo Étnico. In El Presente Del Estado-Nación. Ander Gurrutxaga and Euskal Unibertsitatea, eds. Pp. 107–128. Bilbao: Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco.Google Scholar
  63. Makaryan, Shushanik. 2006. Trends in Citizenship Policies of the 15 Former Soviet Union Republics: Conforming the World Culture or Following National Identity? University of California, Irvine.Google Scholar
  64. Makaryan, Shushanik. 2009. State-Building and Nation-Making in the Former Soviet Republics: Transformation and Institutionalization of Citizenship, 1990–2005. Washington State University., accessed November 19, 2018.
  65. Mamedov, Elbrus. 2014. Minority Rights Monitoring Group. Interview by Maxim Tabachnik. In person. Tbilisi. October 24.Google Scholar
  66. Mammadli, Zalimkhan. 2014. Chairman, Borchali Public Union. Interview by Maxim Tabachnik. September 24.Google Scholar
  67. Marx, Karl. 1848. Manifesto of the Communist Party., accessed April 3, 2016.
  68. Meeus, Joke, Bart Duriez, Norbert Vanbeselaere, and Filip Boen. 2010. The Role of National Identity Representation in the Relation Between In-Group Identification and Out-Group Derogation: Ethnic Versus Civic Representation. The British Journal of Social Psychology 49(Pt 2): 305–320.Google Scholar
  69. Meinecke, Friedrich. 1970. Cosmopolitanism and the National State Weltburgertum. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Morris, Helen. 2003. EU Enlargement and Latvian Citizenship Policy. Journal of Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe (1): 1–40.Google Scholar
  71. Nairn, Tom. 1997. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  72. Nasirli, Asima. 2014. Former Lawyer for a Human Rights and Citizenship NGO. Interview by Maxim Tabachnik. In person. Baku. September 18.Google Scholar
  73. O’Brien, Conor Cruise. 1988. God Land: Reflections on Religion and Nationalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Peters, Bernhard. 2002. A New Look at “National Identity”: How Should We Think About ‘Collective’ or ‘National Identities’? Are There Two Types of National Identities? Does Germany Have an Ethnic Identity, and Is It Different? European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie / Europäisches Archiv Für Soziologie 43(1): 3–32.Google Scholar
  75. Reeskens, Tim, and Marc Hooghe. 2010. Beyond the Civic–Ethnic Dichotomy: Investigating the Structure of Citizenship Concepts Across Thirty‐Three Countries. Nations and Nationalism 16(4): 579–597.Google Scholar
  76. Saakashvili Gives Citizenship to 3000 Georgians in Turkey. 2013. Democracy and Freedom Watch., accessed August 1, 2015.
  77. Seton-Watson, Hugh. 1977. Nations and States: An Enquiry into the Origins of Nations and the Politics of Nationalism. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  78. Shevel, Oxana. 2002. Nationality in Ukraine: Some Rules of Engagement. East European Politics & Societies 16(2): 386–413.Google Scholar
  79. Shevel, Oxana. 2009. The Politics of Citizenship Policy in New States. Comparative Politics 41(3): 273–291.Google Scholar
  80. Shevel, Oxana. 2011. Russian Nation-Building from Yel’tsin to Medvedev: Ethnic, Civic or Purposefully Ambiguous? Europe-Asia Studies 63: 179–202.Google Scholar
  81. Shevel, Oxana. 2012. The Politics of Citizenship Policy in Post-Soviet Russia. Post-Soviet Affairs 28(1): 111–147.Google Scholar
  82. Shulman, Stephen. 2002. Challenging the Civic/Ethnic and West/East Dichotomies in the Study of Nationalism. Comparative Political Studies 35(5): 554–585.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, Anthony D. 1988. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  84. Smith, Anthony D. 1991. National Identity. Reno: University of Nevada Press.Google Scholar
  85. Smith, Anthony D. 1995. Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  86. Smith, Anthony D. 1999. Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Statistical Data on Latvian Population by Citizenship Status. 2016. Latvian Department of Citizenship and Migration., accessed June 7, 2016.
  88. Tabachnik, Maxim. 2019. Untangling Liberal Democracy from Territoriality: From Ethnic/Civic to Ethnic/Territorial Nationalism. Nations and Nationalism 25(1), 191–207.Google Scholar
  89. Taylor, Charles. 2007. A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Taylor, Peter. 1994. The State as Container: Territoriality in the Modern World-System. Progress in Human Geography 18(2): 151–162.Google Scholar
  91. Tilly, Charles. 1985. War Making and State Making as Organized Crime. In Bringing the State Back In. Peter B. Evans, Theda Skocpol, and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds. Pp. 170–188. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Tokluoglu, Ceylan. 2005. Definitions of National Identity, Nationalism and Ethnicity in Post-Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1990s. Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 722–758.Google Scholar
  93. Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri. 1992. Dealing with the Minorities—A Baltic Perspective. The World Today 48(6): 108–112.Google Scholar
  94. Vink, Maarten P., and Gerard-René DeGroot. 2010. Birthright Citizenship: Trends and Regulations in Europe. SSRN Scholarly Paper, ID 1714975. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network., accessed April 19, 2014.
  95. Waldrauch, Harald, and Christoph Hofinger. 1997. An Index to Measure the Legal Obstacles to the Integration of Migrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 23(2): 271–285.Google Scholar
  96. Weber, Max. 2003. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Talcott Parsons, trans. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  97. Weil, Patrick. 2001. Access to Citizenship: A Comparison of Twenty-Five Nationality Laws. In Citizenship Today: Global Perspectives and Practices. Douglas Klusmeyer and Alexander Aleinikoff, eds. Pp. 17–35. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  98. Wright, Matthew, Jack Citrin, and Jonathan Wand. 2012. Alternative Measures of American National Identity: Implications for the Civic-Ethnic Distinction. Political Psychology 33(4): 469–482.Google Scholar
  99. Yack, Bernard. 1999. The Myth of the Civic Nation. In Theorizing Nationalism. Ronald Beiner, ed. Pp. 103–118. SUNY Series in Political Theory. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  100. Yucer, Sophie. 2014. Protection Office, UNHCR Tbilisi. Interview by Maxim Tabachnik. In person. Tbilisi. October 7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maxim Tabachnik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PoliticsUniversity of California, Santa CruzSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations