openDSME: Reliable Time-Slotted Multi-Hop Communication for IEEE 802.15.4

  • Florian KauerEmail author
  • Maximilian Köstler
  • Volker Turau
Part of the EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing book series (EAISICC)


Using wireless sensor and actuator networks in industrial applications promises timely and fine-grained feedback and control of plants. However, these applications call for very high reliability that cannot be fulfilled with contention-based medium access. Therefore, the IEEE 802.15.4 standard was extended with multiple time-slotted as well as frequency-agile medium access techniques. The Deterministic and Synchronous Multi-Channel Extension (DSME) is of particular interest due to its extensive set of standardized methods for distributed slot management. This chapter presents openDSME, a comprehensive implementation of DSME to be used in the OMNeT++ simulator as well as on real-life wireless sensor nodes. The main features of DSME are presented, together with implementation details of openDSME. The chapter concludes with a step-by-step tutorial to get started with openDSME.



The authors would like to thank everyone who has contributed to the development of openDSME, starting with Tobias Lübkert for the first functional OMNeT++ DSME implementation, Sandrina Backhauß (now Köstler) for mastering the complex data structures, Axel Neuser for the Contiki port, and Florian Meyer for the channel hopping and CAP reduction functionality.


  1. 1.
    Adjih, C., Baccelli, E., Fleury, E., Harter, G., Mitton, N., Noel, T., Pissard-Gibollet, R., Saint-Marcel, F., Schreiner, G., Vandaele, J., Watteyne, T.: FIT IoT-LAB: a large scale open experimental IoT testbed. In: IEEE 2nd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). IEEE, Piscataway (2015).
  2. 2.
    Alderisi, G., Patti, G., Mirabella, O., Bello, L.L.: Simulative assessments of the IEEE 802.15. 4e DSME and TSCH in realistic process automation scenarios. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), pp. 948–955. IEEE, Piscataway (2015).
  3. 3.
    De Guglielmo, D., Brienza, S., Anastasi, G.: IEEE 802.15.4e: a survey. Comput. Commun. 88, 1–24 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dunkels, A., Grönvall, B., Voigt, T.: Contiki—a lightweight and flexible operating system for tiny networked sensors. In: Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Local Computer Networks, pp. 455–462. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2004).
  5. 5.
    IEEE Standards Association: IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks–part 15.4: low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). IEEE Std 802.15.4–2011–Revision of IEEE Std. 802.15.4™-2006. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway (2011).
  6. 6.
    IEEE Standards Association: IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks–part 15.4: low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) amendment 1: MAC sublayer. IEEE Std 802.15.4e-2012–Amendment to IEEE Std 802.15.4™-2011. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway (2012).
  7. 7.
    IEEE Standards Association: IEEE standard for low-rate wireless networks. IEEE Std 802.15.4-2015–Revision of IEEE Std. 802.15.4™-2011. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway (2016).
  8. 8.
    Jeong, W.C., Lee, J.: Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4e DSME MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Workshop on Enabling Technologies for Smartphone and Internet of Things (ETSIoT), pp. 7–12. IEEE, Piscataway (2012).
  9. 9.
    Karp, B., Kung, H.T.: GPSR: greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks. In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom ’00, pp. 243–254. ACM, New York (2000).
  10. 10.
    Kauer, F., Köstler, M., Lübkert, T., Turau, V.: Formal analysis and verification of the IEEE 802.15.4 DSME slot allocation. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWIM). ACM, New York (2016).
  11. 11.
    Kauer, F., Kallias, E., Turau, V.: A dual-radio approach for reliable emergency signaling in critical infrastructure assets with large wireless networks. Int. J. Crit. Infrastruct. Prot. 21, 33–46 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kauer, F., Köstler, M., Turau, V.: Reliable wireless multi-hop networks with decentralized slot management: an analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 DSME (2018). Preprint
  13. 13.
    Kirsche, M., Schnurbusch, M.: A new IEEE 802.15.4 simulation model for OMNeT++/INET. In: Proceedings of the 1st OMNeT++ Community Summit (2014).
  14. 14.
    Meier, F., Turau, V.: An analytical model for fast and verifiable assessment of large scale wireless mesh networks. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN). IEEE, Piscataway (2015).
  15. 15.
    Pešović, U., Mohorko, J., Benkič, K., Čučej, Ž.: Effect of hidden nodes in IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 17th Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), pp. 161–164 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pfahl, A., Randt, M., Meier, F., Zaschke, M., Geurts, C.P.W., Buselmeier, M.: A holistic approach for low cost heliostat fields. In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Concentrated Solar Power and Chemical Energy Technologies (SolarPACES). Peking, China (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Unterschütz, S., Weigel, A., Turau, V.: Cross-platform protocol development based on OMNeT++. In: Proceedings of the 5th International ICST Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques (SIMUTOOLS), pp. 278–282. ICST, Brussels (2012).
  18. 18.
    Wang, F., Li, D., Zhao, Y.: Analysis and compare of slotted and unslotted CSMA in IEEE 802.15.4. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, pp. 1–5. IEEE, Piscataway (2009).
  19. 19.
    Weigel, A., Turau, V.: Hardware-assisted IEEE 802.15.4 transmissions and why to avoid them. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Internet and Distributed Computing Systems (IDCS 2015), pp. 223–234. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florian Kauer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maximilian Köstler
    • 1
  • Volker Turau
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of TelematicsHamburg University of TechnologyHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations