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Introduction

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Abstract

This chapter introduces the main purpose of this book. It also gives the historical background of the Muslim community in Sri Lanka. It explains the diversity within the Tamil community in Sri Lanka and how Muslims started to identify themselves as Moors. This chapter also gives an introduction to pre-colonial times and colonial times in Sri Lanka. From the perspective of the Muslim community in Sri Lanka, this chapter also gives the reader an introduction to the civil war and post-war conflicts involving the Sri Lankan community. This chapter also has an introduction to the political party that this book analyzes, namely, the Sri Lankan Muslim Congress. In this chapter the reader will also get an introduction to some or the theoretical points of departure in this book. The chapter ends by discussing the source material upon which this study is based as well as how it is analyzed. The three types of sources are: interviews, parliamentary speeches, and official documents from the SLMC. They will be analyzed separately in the following chapters and will then be compared in the final chapter. The different forms of source material not only give a widespread empirical base but also correspond to the overall aim and questions posed by me in this book.

Keywords

  • Muslim politics
  • Islam
  • Muslims
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sri Lanka Muslim Congress

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Rauff Hakeem, 2013-02-24.

  2. 2.

    For some examples, see Wickramasinghe <CitationRef CitationID="CR110" >2006</Citation Ref>, Warnapala <CitationRef CitationID="CR108" >2001</Citation Ref>, and Meyer <CitationRef CitationID="CR83" >2001</Citation Ref>.

  3. 3.

    For example, see Abdullah <CitationRef CitationID="CR1" >2004</Citation Ref>, Ali <CitationRef CitationID="CR06" >2004</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR6" >2014</Citation Ref>, Brune <CitationRef CitationID="CR19" >2003</Citation Ref>, De Munk <CitationRef CitationID="CR23" >2005a</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR24" >b</Citation Ref>, Gaasbeek <CitationRef CitationID="CR33" >2010</Citation Ref>, Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR40" >2013</Citation Ref>, Imtiyaz, <CitationRef CitationID="CR50" >2005</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR51" >2009</Citation Ref>, Imtiyaz and Iqbal <CitationRef CitationID="CR52" >2011</Citation Ref>, Mahroof <CitationRef CitationID="CR66" >1990</Citation Ref>, McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR69" >1974</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR70" >1991</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR71" >1998</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR72" >2001</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR73" >2004</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR76" >2011b</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR78" >2014</Citation Ref>, Mohan <CitationRef CitationID="CR86" >1987</Citation Ref>, Shukri <CitationRef CitationID="CR98" >1986</Citation Ref>, Walker <CitationRef CitationID="CR106" >2013</Citation Ref>, Zackariya and Shanmugaratnam <CitationRef CitationID="CR113" >2003</Citation Ref>, and Klem <CitationRef CitationID="CR61" >2011</Citation Ref>.

  4. 4.

    For examples, see Alif <CitationRef CitationID="CR7" >2012</Citation Ref>, Gosh <CitationRef CitationID="CR37" >2003</Citation Ref>: 237–242, and De Silva <CitationRef CitationID="CR27" >1998</Citation Ref>: 251–271.

  5. 5.

    The fieldwork upon which this book is based was concluded in 2013, and the political narrative concludes with the election of 2012.

  6. 6.

    See McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR79" >2015</Citation Ref>. Christians can also be counted among the Sinhalese and Tamil populations (7.4%). There are also other minorities in the country, such as the Vedda people and burghers, who are self-identifying communities. See McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR74" >2008</Citation Ref>: 47–49, 174–175, 181–182. For a detailed table of the Muslim population in each province, see Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 29. Muslims are traditionally seen as traders, although most Muslims work in the service industry or in agriculture. In the east, Muslims are farmers and fishermen and own 50% of the paddy land in the Trincomalee and Batticaloa districts. For more information about the legislative council, see Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 62f, and for a detailed table of information regarding current Muslim employment, see Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 53.

  7. 7.

    Shukri <CitationRef CitationID="CR98" >1986</Citation Ref>: 337 and McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 4.

  8. 8.

    For more detailed information about Arab/Persian history in Sri Lanka, see Dewaraja <CitationRef CitationID="CR31" >1994</Citation Ref>.

  9. 9.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 5.

  10. 10.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 4.

  11. 11.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 6.

  12. 12.

    De Silva, C.R. <CitationRef CitationID="CR25" >1986</Citation Ref>: 159.

  13. 13.

    De Silva, C.R. <CitationRef CitationID="CR25" >1986</Citation Ref>: 160.

  14. 14.

    See Mahroof <CitationRef CitationID="CR66" >1990</Citation Ref>.

  15. 15.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 9.

  16. 16.

    Spencer <CitationRef CitationID="CR101" >2014</Citation Ref>: 4.

  17. 17.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 9.

  18. 18.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 57. Like the Muslims, the Tamil community has also been constructed throughout history. For a discussion on how the Tamil identity was constructed and how it included Muslims, see O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 150f. A detailed discussion of the cultural and linguistic affinities of the Sri Lankan Muslims can be found in McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR71" >1998</Citation Ref> and McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR80" >2016</Citation Ref>.

  19. 19.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 10.

  20. 20.

    Nuhman <CitationRef CitationID="CR90" >2002</Citation Ref>: 33.

  21. 21.

    Goonewardena <CitationRef CitationID="CR36" >1986</Citation Ref>: 225.

  22. 22.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 6. It is possible that the Malay culture has a longer history in Sri Lanka; for an introduction to the Malay language and history in Sri Lanka, see Mahroof <CitationRef CitationID="CR67" >1992</Citation Ref>. For an “insider’s” narrative of being Malay in Sri Lanka, see Saldin <CitationRef CitationID="CR95" >2003</Citation Ref>.

  23. 23.

    Ali <CitationRef CitationID="CR3" >1986</Citation Ref>: 236.

  24. 24.

    There is also the practice of the Hanafi School in Sri Lanka. For an introduction to the different Sunni schools of law, see Hallaq: <CitationRef CitationID="CR38" >1997</Citation Ref>.

  25. 25.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 50.

  26. 26.

    Arabic Tamil is not recognized by the state. See Ahmad <CitationRef CitationID="CR2" >2012</Citation Ref>: 276.

  27. 27.

    Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR53" >1995</Citation Ref>: 75. The focus on Arab merchants is still current. For an example, see Hussein <CitationRef CitationID="CR48" >2011</Citation Ref>.

  28. 28.

    Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR53" >1995</Citation Ref>: 65.

  29. 29.

    Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 61.

  30. 30.

    Uyangoda <CitationRef CitationID="CR105" >2001</Citation Ref>: 120.

  31. 31.

    Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR40" >2013</Citation Ref>: 175.

  32. 32.

    Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR53" >1995</Citation Ref>: 74.

  33. 33.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 9.

  34. 34.

    Wimalratne <CitationRef CitationID="CR112" >1986</Citation Ref>: 428.

  35. 35.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 53.

  36. 36.

    Ahmad <CitationRef CitationID="CR2" >2012</Citation Ref>: 277.

  37. 37.

    Ahmad <CitationRef CitationID="CR2" >2012</Citation Ref>: 277.

  38. 38.

    Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR53" >1995</Citation Ref>: 73.

  39. 39.

    Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR53" >1995</Citation Ref>: 86.

  40. 40.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 60.

  41. 41.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 60.

  42. 42.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 62 and Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR53" >1995</Citation Ref>: 87.

  43. 43.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR26" >1986</Citation Ref>: 457.

  44. 44.

    Bohras, Memons, and Afghans came to the island at the end of the nineteenth century. Afghans are considered to be fully integrated through intermarriage. For more details, see O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>.

  45. 45.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 12.

  46. 46.

    For an overview of the demographic changes of the Muslim population (1881–1981), see Marga Institute <CitationRef CitationID="CR68" >1988</Citation Ref>.

  47. 47.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 7. For a detailed overview of the history of Muslims in Tamil Nadu, see More <CitationRef CitationID="CR87" >2004</Citation Ref>.

  48. 48.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 7.

  49. 49.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 609.

  50. 50.

    Spencer <CitationRef CitationID="CR100" >2012</Citation Ref>: 727.

  51. 51.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 627.

  52. 52.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 628.

  53. 53.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 629.

  54. 54.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 673.

  55. 55.

    Tamils are of course not a homogenous group; there are differences in caste, nation (Sri Lankan, Indian), religion (Christian, Hindu), region (east, north), politics, and class; see Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 23. For more details about Muslims’ interactions with the Tamils, see McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR74" >2008</Citation Ref>.

  56. 56.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 628.

  57. 57.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 674.

  58. 58.

    Spencer <CitationRef CitationID="CR100" >2012</Citation Ref>: 727.

  59. 59.

    It was formerly known as the Tamil United Front (formed in 1972) but later changed its name to the TULF (in 1976) to emphasize a more radical role. See Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 108.

  60. 60.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 681f.

  61. 61.

    Schalk <CitationRef CitationID="CR97" >1997</Citation Ref>: 80. For more examples, see Natali <CitationRef CitationID="CR89" >2008</Citation Ref>.

  62. 62.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 210.See also O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR92" >1999b</Citation Ref>.

  63. 63.

    Wickramasinghe <CitationRef CitationID="CR110" >2006</Citation Ref>: 284.

  64. 64.

    There might have been as many as 37 different militant Tamil groups at this point. See Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 126.

  65. 65.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 127.

  66. 66.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 128.

  67. 67.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 128.

  68. 68.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 129.

  69. 69.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 123.

  70. 70.

    Arena <CitationRef CitationID="CR11" >2006</Citation Ref>: 177.

  71. 71.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 113.

  72. 72.

    For further reading on the JVP, see Kapferer <CitationRef CitationID="CR59" >2001</Citation Ref>.

  73. 73.

    Wickramasinghe <CitationRef CitationID="CR110" >2006</Citation Ref>: 244.

  74. 74.

    Wickramasinghe <CitationRef CitationID="CR110" >2006</Citation Ref>: 244.

  75. 75.

    Wickramasinghe <CitationRef CitationID="CR110" >2006</Citation Ref>: 234.

  76. 76.

    De Silva K.M. <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 701.

  77. 77.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 137f.

  78. 78.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 147.

  79. 79.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 148. The Indian intervention that began in 1987 and ended in 1990 led not only to former president Jayewardene’s downfall but later also to India’s prime minister Rajiv Gandhi being assassinated by the LTTE through a suicide bombing in 1991. Before that, he had lost his post as prime minister, and his successor, V. P. Singh, ordered the withdrawal of the IPKF. In the political power vacuum, Muslims found themselves in a vulnerable position.

  80. 80.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 151.

  81. 81.

    Wilson <CitationRef CitationID="CR111" >2000</Citation Ref>: 153–4.

  82. 82.

    De Silva <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 697–8.

  83. 83.

    De Silva <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 698–9.

  84. 84.

    De Silva <CitationRef CitationID="CR28" >2005</Citation Ref>: 701.

  85. 85.

    Brune <CitationRef CitationID="CR19" >2003</Citation Ref>: 119. See also Thiranagama <CitationRef CitationID="CR104" >2011</Citation Ref>, especially chapters 3 and 4, which deal with the conditions of the Muslim refugees. For a more recent study on how Muslim women struggle in these camps, see Zackariya and Shanmugaratnam <CitationRef CitationID="CR113" >2003</Citation Ref>.

  86. 86.

    Brune <CitationRef CitationID="CR18" >2000</Citation Ref>: 2.

  87. 87.

    Brune <CitationRef CitationID="CR19" >2003</Citation Ref>: 120.

  88. 88.

    Lewer and Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR64" >2011</Citation Ref>: 124.

  89. 89.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 20.

  90. 90.

    SLMC: “Our History”, retrieved, 2013-04-02.

  91. 91.

    Another term that was used for Muslims in the Sri Lankan census in the 1970s was Lanka Yonka; see McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR71" >1998</Citation Ref>.

  92. 92.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 11. Another factor that is sometimes used to explain the strengthening of the Muslim identity in the 1970s is that many Sri Lankan citizens got the opportunity to work in the Middle East, primarily the Arabian Peninsula. This resulted in an increasing number of educated Muslims and their economic status rose. See O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 256 and Zackariya, and Shanmugaratnam <CitationRef CitationID="CR113" >2003</Citation Ref>.

  93. 93.

    See Nuhman <CitationRef CitationID="CR90" >2002</Citation Ref>. McGilvray (<CitationRef CitationID="CR71" >1998</Citation Ref>) argues that this conflict started much earlier, that is, well before Ceylonese independence in 1948. It was reflected in the rivalry between the Ceylon Moors Association and the Ceylon Muslim League. (See McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR71" >1998</Citation Ref>: 452.)

  94. 94.

    Ali <CitationRef CitationID="CR4" >2001</Citation Ref>: 7.

  95. 95.

    Mahroof <CitationRef CitationID="CR66" >1990</Citation Ref>: 27–28.

  96. 96.

    Da’wa movements are not exclusively found on the Indian subcontinent; the phenomenon is worldwide. For other examples on how these movements have had an impact on the Asian context, see Mutalib <CitationRef CitationID="CR88" >1990</Citation Ref> and Knoerzer <CitationRef CitationID="CR63" >1998</Citation Ref>: 154.

  97. 97.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 104–7.

  98. 98.

    Hasbullah and Korf <CitationRef CitationID="CR57" >2013</Citation Ref>: 39.

  99. 99.

    In Sri Lanka it is common to equate Sufism with saint-worshipping and Hindu culture. See Hasbullah and Korf <CitationRef CitationID="CR57" >2013</Citation Ref>: 39. The term “reformists” is sometimes used to describe movements or individuals that propagate an Islamic revival. For a discussion on the term “reformist” in South Asia, see Osella and Osella <CitationRef CitationID="CR93" >2013</Citation Ref>: xii. For a discussion on the term “salafist”, see Meijer <CitationRef CitationID="CR82" >2009</Citation Ref>.

  100. 100.

    McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR71" >1998</Citation Ref>: 443. See also McGilvray, <CitationRef CitationID="CR73" >2004</Citation Ref>, <CitationRef CitationID="CR75" >2011a</Citation Ref> and <CitationRef CitationID="CR77" >2013</Citation Ref>.

  101. 101.

    See McGilvray <CitationRef CitationID="CR69" >1974</Citation Ref>.

  102. 102.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 164.

  103. 103.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 211.

  104. 104.

    Ismail et al. <CitationRef CitationID="CR54" >2004</Citation Ref>: 163.

  105. 105.

    For a general example, see McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 20.

  106. 106.

    O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 224.

  107. 107.

    McGilvray and Raheem <CitationRef CitationID="CR81" >2007</Citation Ref>: 21 and O’Sullivan <CitationRef CitationID="CR91" >1999a</Citation Ref>: 221.

  108. 108.

    See Goodhand and Walton <CitationRef CitationID="CR34" >2009</Citation Ref>, Höglund and Svensson <CitationRef CitationID="CR49" >2009</Citation Ref>.

  109. 109.

    J.P. Pathirana quoted in Bartholomeusz <CitationRef CitationID="CR15" >2002</Citation Ref>: 84.

  110. 110.

    Bartholomeusz <CitationRef CitationID="CR15" >2002</Citation Ref>: 167.

  111. 111.

    Helbardt et al. <CitationRef CitationID="CR43" >2013</Citation Ref>: 44.

  112. 112.

    Goodhand et al. <CitationRef CitationID="CR35" >2009</Citation Ref>: 686.

  113. 113.

    Imtiyaz <CitationRef CitationID="CR50" >2005</Citation Ref>: 15.

  114. 114.

    For further reading on the discussion about Muslim politicians and the effects of the tsunami, see Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR39" >2005</Citation Ref> and Hasbullah and Korf <CitationRef CitationID="CR42" >2009</Citation Ref>.

  115. 115.

    See Amarasingam and Bass <CitationRef CitationID="CR8" >2015</Citation Ref>.

  116. 116.

    For one example, see Klem <CitationRef CitationID="CR62" >2014</Citation Ref>.

  117. 117.

    See Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR56" >2015</Citation Ref>, Holt <CitationRef CitationID="CR58" >2016</Citation Ref>, and Samaratunge and Hattotuwa <CitationRef CitationID="CR96" >2014</Citation Ref>.

  118. 118.

    Hasbullah and Korf <CitationRef CitationID="CR57" >2013</Citation Ref>: 34.

  119. 119.

    Hasbullah and Korf <CitationRef CitationID="CR57" >2013</Citation Ref>: 34.

  120. 120.

    For an historical overview of Kattankudy religious diversity, see Ali <CitationRef CitationID="CR5" >2009</Citation Ref> and Spencer et al. <CitationRef CitationID="CR102" >2014</Citation Ref>.

  121. 121.

    Hasbullah and Korf <CitationRef CitationID="CR57" >2013</Citation Ref>: 38.

  122. 122.

    Hasbullah and Korf <CitationRef CitationID="CR57" >2013</Citation Ref>: 38.

  123. 123.

    Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR55" >2012</Citation Ref>: 58.

  124. 124.

    For an article about Al Muslimaat, see Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR40" >2013</Citation Ref>.

  125. 125.

    Spencer <CitationRef CitationID="CR100" >2012</Citation Ref>: 728.

  126. 126.

    Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 234.

  127. 127.

    SLMC “Our History”, retrieved 2014-12-03.

  128. 128.

    Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR40" >2013</Citation Ref>: 174.

  129. 129.

    See Centered Political Parties Parliamentary General Election – <CitationRef CitationID="CR22" >1989</Citation Ref>, retrieved 2012-10-29. Members of parliament are elected by a proportional representation system. Votes are thus counted in proportion to the numbers received in each district, in total 196 seats. The remaining 29 seats are determined by how many votes a party received in proportion to the results from the entire country. For further information, see the Department of Election, retrieved 2012-10-29. To see the performance of the SLMC in the elections that took place between 1989 and 2000, see Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 155.

  130. 130.

    Centered Political Parties Parliamentary General Election – <CitationRef CitationID="CR22" >1989</Citation Ref>, retrieved 2012-10-29. In Ampara, Batticaloa, and Vani, the SLMC got one parliamentary seat each. The other seat came from the national list.

  131. 131.

    Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 176, 247.

  132. 132.

    Lewer and Ismail <CitationRef CitationID="CR64" >2011</Citation Ref>: 125.

  133. 133.

    Ameerdeen <CitationRef CitationID="CR9" >2006</Citation Ref>: 176.

  134. 134.

    Haniffa <CitationRef CitationID="CR40" >2013</Citation Ref>: 174.

  135. 135.

    Besides the SLFP and the UPFA, in 2004 there was a coalition of the communist parties of Sri Lanka, the Desha Vimukthi Janatha Party, the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party, the Mahajana Eksath Peramuna, the National Unity Alliance, and the Sri Lanka Mahajana Pakshaya.

  136. 136.

    After 2010 the alliance consisted of the following parties: All Ceylon Muslim Congress, Ceylon Workers’ Congress, Communist Party of Sri Lanka, Eelam People’s Democratic Party, Jathika Hela Urumaya, Lanka Sama Samaja Party, Mahajana Eksath Peramuna, National Congress, National Freedom Front, Sri Lanka Freedom Party, and Up-Country People’s Front. The JVP had left the coalition and was running independently.

  137. 137.

    Helbardt et al. <CitationRef CitationID="CR43" >2013</Citation Ref>: 45.

  138. 138.

    Weerarathne <CitationRef CitationID="CR109" >2013</Citation Ref>.

  139. 139.

    See Lincoln <CitationRef CitationID="CR65" >2003</Citation Ref>: 62f on why state should be separated from nation and ethnicity in an analysis.

  140. 140.

    Wallerstein <CitationRef CitationID="CR107" >2002</Citation Ref>: 107.

  141. 141.

    Balibar and Wallerstein <CitationRef CitationID="CR13" >2002</Citation Ref>.

  142. 142.

    Balibar <CitationRef CitationID="CR12" >2002</Citation Ref>: 118.

  143. 143.

    Balibar <CitationRef CitationID="CR12" >2002</Citation Ref>: 119–20.

  144. 144.

    Balibar <CitationRef CitationID="CR12" >2002</Citation Ref>: 127.

  145. 145.

    Balibar refers to Althusser to explain his ideas, Balibar <CitationRef CitationID="CR12" >2002</Citation Ref>: 128.

  146. 146.

    Balibar <CitationRef CitationID="CR12" >2002</Citation Ref>: 129.

  147. 147.

    For an overview on the concept of nationalism, see Özkirimli 2010 and Delanty and Kumar <CitationRef CitationID="CR29" >2006</Citation Ref>.

  148. 148.

    Anderson <CitationRef CitationID="CR10" >2006</Citation Ref> (1983): 6.

  149. 149.

    Anderson <CitationRef CitationID="CR10" >2006</Citation Ref> (1983): 163f.

  150. 150.

    In the official census, the Malays are also identified as a separate group, and probably all of them identify themselves as Muslims.

  151. 151.

    Census of Population and Housing <CitationRef CitationID="CR21" >2012</Citation Ref>.

  152. 152.

    See Barth <CitationRef CitationID="CR14" >1969</Citation Ref>.

  153. 153.

    For a discussion on Islam as an ethnic marker, see Hjärpe <CitationRef CitationID="CR45" >1987</Citation Ref>.

  154. 154.

    Mitchell <CitationRef CitationID="CR84" >2005</Citation Ref>: 3.

  155. 155.

    Mitchell <CitationRef CitationID="CR84" >2005</Citation Ref>: 18; see also Mitchell <CitationRef CitationID="CR85" >2006</Citation Ref> and Brass <CitationRef CitationID="CR17" >1991</Citation Ref>: 18. He defines ethnic markers as “cultural markers”.

  156. 156.

    Svensson <CitationRef CitationID="CR103" >2000</Citation Ref>: 17.

  157. 157.

    Eickelman and Piscatori <CitationRef CitationID="CR32" >2004</Citation Ref>: 18.

  158. 158.

    Eickelman and Piscatori <CitationRef CitationID="CR32" >2004</Citation Ref>: 4.

  159. 159.

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Johansson, A. (2019). Introduction. In: Pragmatic Muslim Politics. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12789-3_1

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