Investigation in Sono-photocatalysis Process Using Doped Catalyst and Ferrite Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment

  • Sankar ChakmaEmail author
  • G. Kumaravel Dinesh
  • Satadru Chakraborty
  • Vijayanand S. MoholkarEmail author
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 30)


Industrialization and urbanization affect the environment directly, and water is one of the primary natural resources which are affected significantly. With rapid development of science of nanotechnology, the use of nanomaterials in environmental applications, especially water treatment, has attracted the scientific community in the last decades. Nanomaterials have unique properties, for example, surface-to-volume ratio, quantum effect, low band-gap energy, etc., which give extra features in catalytic performance.

This chapter gives a brief introduction of nanomaterials including their classification, shape and structure, type of nanomaterials and their applications in degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants. Moreover, an attempt was made to emphasize the role of catalyst surface in degradation mechanism in the presence of transient metal ions or other elements and an external oxidant such as H2O2. Additionally, we have also discussed process intensification using sono-hybrid advanced oxidation processes of sono-photocatalysis and heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction for wastewater treatment. Some of our investigations revealed that nanophotocatalyst such as ZrFe2O5 possesses dual characteristic and it contains α-Fe2O3 phase which acts as a centre of recombination for holes and electrons resulting to low photoactivity. However, this phase promotes Fenton-like reaction in presence of H2O2 leading to higher degradation. Therefore, the dual activities of photo and Fenton, ZrFe2O5, were found to be better catalyst for hybrid advanced oxidation processes than other conventional photocatalysts. On the other hand, the doping of transition metal ions into nanophotocatalyst helps to generate more OH radicals which attack the organic molecules adsorbed on the catalyst surface and enhanced the degradation efficiency. In sono-hybrid advanced oxidation processes, such photocatalysts exhibit negative synergy as the intense shock waves generated due to the transient collapse of cavitation bubbles influence the desorption of organic molecules from the solid surfaces. As a result, low degradation efficiency was seen due to reduction of interaction probability between radicals and organic molecules.


Photocatalysis Sonocatalysis Advanced oxidation process Nanoparticles Ferrite nanoparticle Doped catalyst Degradation Water treatment Ultrasound Cavitation 


  1. Abd Ellah NH, Abouelmagd SA (2017) Surface functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles for tumor drug delivery: approaches and challenges. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 14:1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abouelmagd SA, Meng F, Kim BK, Hyun H, Yeo Y (2016) Tannic acid-mediated surface functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2:2294–2304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmadi M, Mistry H, Cuenya BR (2016) Tailoring the catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles via support interactions. J Phys Chem Lett 7:3519–3533. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alenezi MR, Henley SJ, Emerson NG, Silva SRP (2014) From 1D and 2D ZnO nanostructures to 3D hierarchical structures with enhanced gas sensing properties. Nanoscale 6:235–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antolini E (2016) Structural parameters of supported fuel cell catalysts: the effect of particle size, inter-particle distance and metal loading on catalytic activity and fuel cell performance. Appl Catal B Environ 181:298–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arjmand M, Chizari K, Krause B, Poetschke P, Sundararaj U (2016) Effect of synthesis catalyst on structure of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding of their polymeric nanocomposites. Carbon 98:358–372. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Astefanei A, Nunez O, Galceran MT (2015) Characterisation and determination of fullerenes: a critical review. Anal Chim Acta 882:1–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bang JH, Suslick KS (2010) Applications of ultrasound to the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Adv Mater 22:1039–1059. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Behafarid F, Cuenya BR (2012) Coarsening phenomena of metal nanoparticles and the influence of the support pre-treatment: Pt/TiO2 (110). Surf Sci Rep 606:908–918. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Behafarid F, Cuenya BR (2013) Towards the understanding of sintering phenomena at the nanoscale: geometric and environmental effects. Top Catal 56:1542–1559. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhosale MA, Bhanage BM (2016) A simple approach for sonochemical synthesis of Cu2O nanoparticles with high catalytic properties. Adv Powder Technol 27:238–244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell CT, Sellers JR (2013) Anchored metal nanoparticles: effects of support and size on their energy, sintering resistance and reactivity. Faraday Discuss 162:9–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campos EVR, D-Oliveira JL, Da-Silva CMG, Pascoli M, Pasquoto T, Lima R, Abhilash PC, Fernandes Fraceto L (2015) Polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles for sustained release of carbendazim and tebuconazole in agricultural applications. Sci Rep 5:13809. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Camposeco R, Castillo S, Navarrete J, Gomez R (2016) Synthesis characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanostructures: nanotubes, nanofibers, nanowires and nanoparticles. Catal Today 266:90–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cao S, Tao FF, Tang Y, Li Y, Yu J (2016) Size-and shape-dependent catalytic performances of oxidation and reduction reactions on nanocatalysts. Chem Soc Rev 45:4747–4765. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chakma S, Moholkar VS (2015a) Sonochemical synthesis of mesoporous ZrFe2O5 and its application for degradation of recalcitrant pollutants. RSC Adv 5:53529–53542. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chakma S, Moholkar VS (2015b) Investigation in mechanistic issues of sonocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis using pure and doped photocatalysts. Ultrason Sonochem 22:287–299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cuenya BR (2010) Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles: size, shape, support, composition, and oxidation state effects. Thin Solid Films 518:3127–3150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Das J, Chakma S, Moholkar VS (2018) Structural, magnetic and optical properties of sonochemically synthesized Zr-ferrite nanoparticles. Powder Technol 328:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dinesh GK, Anandan S, Sivasankar T (2015) Sonophotocatalytic treatment of Bismarck Brown G dye and real textile effluent using synthesized novel Fe (0)-doped TiO2 catalyst. RSC Adv 5:10440–10451. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dinesh GK, Gangwar TS, Anandan S, Sivasankar T (2016a) Sonophotocatalytic degradation of scarlet red dye using Fe-Bi2O3 catalyst and its process optimization by response surface methodology. J Catal Catal 3:14–32. ISSN: 2349-4344Google Scholar
  22. Dinesh GK, Anandan S, Sivasankar T (2016b) Synthesis of Fe-doped Bi2O3 nanocatalyst and its sonophotocatalytic activity on synthetic dye and real textile wastewater. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:20100–20110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dinesh GK, Anandan S, Sivasankar T (2016c) Synthesis of Fe/ZnO composite nanocatalyst and its sonophotocatalytic activity on acid yellow 23 dye and real textile effluent. Clean Technol Envir Policy 18:1889–1903. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ekambaram P, Sathali AAH, Priyanka K (2012) Solid lipid nanoparticles: a review. Scien Rev Chem Com 2:80–102. ISSN: 2277-2669Google Scholar
  25. Falcaro P, Ricco R, Yazdi A, Imaz I, Furukawa S, Maspoch D, Ameloot R, Evans JD, Doonan CJ (2016) Application of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles@ MOFs. Coord Chem Rev 307:237–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Figueiredo M, Esenaliev R (2012) PLGA nanoparticles for ultrasound-mediated gene delivery to solid tumors. J Drug Deliv 2012:1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gao W, Sivaramakrishnan S, Wen J, Zuo JM (2015) Direct observation of interfacial Au atoms on TiO2 in three dimensions. Nano Lett 15:2548–2554. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goswami PP, Choudhury HA, Chakma S, Moholkar VS (2013) Sonochemical synthesis and characterization of manganese ferrite nanoparticles. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:17848–17855. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gujrati M, Malamas A, Shin T, Jin E, Sun Y, Lu ZR (2014) Multifunctional cationic lipid-based nanoparticles facilitate endosomal escape and reduction-triggered cytosolic siRNA release. Mol Pharm 11:2734–2744. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ha DH, Caldwell AH, Ward MJ, Honrao S, Mathew K, Hovden P, Koker MK, Muller DA, Hennig RG, Robinson RD (2014) Solid–solid phase transformations induced through cation exchange and strain in 2D heterostructured copper sulfide nanocrystals. Nano Lett 14:7090–7099. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Han L, Gao C, Wu X, Chen Q, Shu P, Ding Z, Che S (2011) Anionic surfactants templating route for synthesizing silica hollow spheres with different shell porosity. Solid State Sci 13:721–728. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. He T, He X, Tang P, Chu D, Wang X, Li P (2017) The use of cryogenic milling to prepare high performance Al2009 matrix composites with dispersive carbon nanotubes. Mater Design 114:373–382. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hosseinpour-Mashkani SM, Sobhani-Nasab A (2016) A simple sonochemical synthesis and characterization of CdWO4 nanoparticles and its photocatalytic application. J Mater Sci- Mater Electron 27:3240–3244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hussein FH, Shaheed MA (2015) Preparation and applications of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. J Environ Anal Chem 2:109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johannsen I, Jaksik K, Wirch N, Potschke P, Fiedler B, Schulte K (2016) Electrical conductivity of melt-spun thermoplastic poly (hydroxy ether of bisphenol A) fibres containing multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Polymer 97:80–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khaletskaya K, Reboul J, Meilikhov M, Nakahama M, Diring S, Tsujimoto M, Isoda S, Kim F, Kamei KI, Fischer RA, Kitagawa S (2013) Integration of porous coordination polymers and gold nanorods into core–shell mesoscopic composites toward light-induced molecular release. J Am Chem Soc 135:10998–11005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim Y, Noh Y, Lim EJ, Lee S, Choi SM, Kim WB (2014) Star-shaped Pd@ Pt core–shell catalysts supported on reduced graphene oxide with superior electrocatalytic performance. J Mater Chem A 2:6976–6986. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klubnuan S, Suwanboon S, Amornpitoksuk P (2016) Effects of optical band gap energy, band tail energy and particle shape on photocatalytic activities of different ZnO nanostructures prepared by a hydrothermal method. Opt Mater 53:134–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar DP, Kumari VD, Karthik M, Sathish M, Shankar MV (2017) Shape dependence structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanocrystals for enhanced hydrogen production via glycerol reforming. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 163:113–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Laurent S, Forge D, Port M, Roch A, Robic C, Vander Elst L, Muller RN (2010) Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, vectorization, physicochemical characterizations, and biological applications. Chem Rev 108:2064–2110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Linic S, Aslam U, Boerigter C, Morabito M (2015) Photochemical transformations on plasmonic metal nanoparticles. Nat Mater 14:567–576. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu B, Nakata K, Sakai M, Saito H, Ochiai T, Murakami T, Takagi K, Fujishima A (2011) Mesoporous TiO2 core–shell spheres composed of nanocrystals with exposed high-energy facets: facile synthesis and formation mechanism. Langmuir 27:8500–8508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu J, Liu Y, Liu N, Han Y, Zhang X, Huang H, Lifshitz Y, Lee ST, Zhong J, Kang Z (2015) Metal-free efficient photocatalyst for stable visible water splitting via a two-electron pathway. Science 347:970–974. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mansha M, Khan I, Ullah N, Qurashi A (2017) Synthesis, characterization and visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction of carbazole-containing conjugated polymers. Int J Hydrog Energy 42:10952–10961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mashaghi S, Jadidi T, Koenderink G, Mashaghi A (2013) Lipid nanotechnology. Int J Mol Sci 14:4242–4282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mistry H, Behafarid F, Bare SR, Roldan Cuenya B (2014a) Pressure-dependent effect of hydrogen adsorption on structural and electronic properties of Pt/γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles. Chem Cat Chem 6:348–352. Google Scholar
  47. Mistry H, Reske R, Zeng Z, Zhao ZJ, Greeley J, Strasser P, Cuenya BR (2014b) Exceptional size-dependent activity enhancement in the electroreduction of CO2 over Au nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 136:16473–16476. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mohamed RM, McKinney DL, Sigmund WM (2012) Enhanced nanocatalysts. Mater Sci Eng R 73:1–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mostafa S, Behafarid F, Croy JR, Ono LK, Li L, Yang JC, Frenkel AI, Cuenya BR (2010) Shape-dependent catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 132:15714–15719. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Naitabdi A, Ono LK, Cuenya BR (2006) Local investigation of the electronic properties of size-selected Au nanoparticles by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Appl Phys Lett 89:043101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Natarajan TS, Natarajan K, Bajaj HC, Tayade RJ (2011) Energy efficient UV-LED source and TiO2 nanotube array-based reactor for photocatalytic application. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:7753–7762. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ono LK, Sudfeld D, Cuenya BR (2006) In situ gas-phase catalytic properties of TiC-supported size-selected gold nanoparticles synthesized by di-block copolymer encapsulation. Surf Sci 600:5041–5050. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ouyang R, Liu JX, Li WX (2013) Atomistic theory of Ostwald ripening and disintegration of supported metal particles under reaction conditions. J Am Chem Soc 135:1760–1771. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pan J, Kang L, Huang P, Jia Z, Liu J, Yao J (2017) Controllable synthesis of ultrafine one-dimensional small-molecule semiconductor nanocrystals in surfactant-assisted wet chemical reaction and confinement effect. J Mater Chem C 5:6377–6385. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Postica V, Grottrup J, Adelung R, Lupan O, Mishra AK, de Leeuw NH, Ababii N, JFC C, Rodrigues J, Sedrine NB, Correia MR, Monteiro T, Sontea V, Mishra YK (2017) Multifunctional materials: a case study of the effects of metal doping on ZnO tetrapods with bismuth and tin oxides. Adv Funct Mater 27:1604676. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Puri A, Loomis K, Smith B, Lee JH, Yavlovich A, Heldman E, Blumenthal R (2009) Lipid-based nanoparticles as pharmaceutical drug carriers: from concepts to clinic. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 26:523–580. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Qu X, Brame J, Li Q, Alvarez PJ (2012) Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse. Acc Chem Res 46:834–843. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rao JP, Geckeler KE (2011) Polymer nanoparticles: preparation techniques and size-control parameters. Prog Polym Sci 36:887–913. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rawat MK, Jain A, Singh S, Mehnert W, Thunemann AF, Souto EB, Mehta A, Vyas SP (2011) Studies on binary lipid matrix based solid lipid nanoparticles of repaglinide: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. J Pharm Sci 100:2366–2378. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reddy DR, Dinesh GK, Anandan S, Sivasankar T (2016) Sonophotocatalytic treatment of naphthol blue black dye and real textile wastewater using synthesized Fe doped TiO2. Chem Eng Process 99:10–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Reske R, Mistry H, Behafarid F, Cuenya BR, Strasser P (2014) Particle size effects in the catalytic electroreduction of CO2 on Cu nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 136:6978–6986. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roy I, Ohulchanskyy TY, Pudavar HE, Bergey EJ, Oseroff AR, Morgan J, Dougherty TJ, Prasad PN (2003) Ceramic-based nanoparticles entrapping water-insoluble photosensitizing anticancer drugs: a novel drug carrier system for photodynamic therapy. J Am Chem Soc 125:7860–7865. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sadegh H, Shahryari-ghoshekandi R, Agarwal S, Tyagi I, Asif M, Gupta VK (2015) Microwave-assisted removal of malachite green by carboxylate functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: kinetics and equilibrium study. J Mol Liq 206:151–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schweinberger FF, Berr MJ, Doblinger M, Wolff C, Sanwald KE, Crampton AS, Ridge CJ, Jackel F, Feldmann J, Tschurl M, Heiz U (2013) Cluster size effects in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. J Am Chem Soc 135:13262–13265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shang L, Bian T, Zhang B, Zhang D, Wu LZ, Tung CH, Yin Y, Zhang T (2014) Graphene-supported ultrafine metal nanoparticles encapsulated by mesoporous silica: robust catalysts for oxidation and reduction reactions. Angew Chem 126:254–258. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Speder J, Altmann L, Baumer M, Kirkensgaard JJ, Mortensen K, Arenz M (2014) The particle proximity effect: from model to high surface area fuel cell catalysts. RSC Adv 4:14971–14978. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Suslick KS, Hyeon T, Fang M, Cichowlas AA (1995) Sonochemical synthesis of nanostructured catalysts. Mater Sci Eng A 204:186–192. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Thomas S, Harshita BSP, Mishra P, Talegaonkar S (2015) Ceramic nanoparticles: fabrication methods and applications in drug delivery. Curr Pharm Des 21:6165–6188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tian J, Liu Q, Asiri AM, Sun X (2014) Self-supported nanoporous cobalt phosphide nanowire arrays: an efficient 3D hydrogen-evolving cathode over the wide range of pH 0–14. J Am Chem Soc 136:7587–7590. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tiwari JN, Tiwari RN, Kim KS (2012) Zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanostructured materials for advanced electrochemical energy devices. Prog Mater Sci 57:724–803. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tsai C, Abild-Pedersen F, Norskov JK (2014) Tuning the MoS2 edge-site activity for hydrogen evolution via support interactions. Nano Lett 14:1381–1387. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. UN (2016) World water development report. World water assessment programme. ISBN 978-92-3-100146-8Google Scholar
  73. Vaneski A, Susha AS, Rodríguez-Fernández J, Berr M, Jackel F, Feldmann J, Rogach AL (2011) Hybrid colloidal heterostructures of anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and function. Adv Funct Mater 21:1547–1556. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weckhuysen BM, Keller DE (2003) Chemistry, spectroscopy and the role of supported vanadium oxides in heterogeneous catalysis. Catal Today 78:25–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Weinberg H, Galyean A, Leopold M (2011) Evaluating engineered nanoparticles in natural waters. Trends Anal Chem 30:72–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wu SH, Mou CY, Lin HP (2013) Synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Chem Soc Rev 42:3862–3875. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wu W, Jiang C, Roy VA (2015) Recent progress in magnetic iron oxide–semiconductor composite nanomaterials as promising photocatalysts. Nanoscale 7:38–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Xie C, Upputuri PK, Zhen X, Pramanik M, Pu K (2017) Self-quenched semiconducting polymer nanoparticles for amplified in vivo photoacoustic imaging. Biomaterials 119:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Xiong YC, Yao YC, Zhan XY, Chen GQ (2010) Application of polyhydroxyalkanoates nanoparticles as intracellular sustained drug-release vectors. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 21:127–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Xu S, Du AG, Liu J, Ng J, Sun DD (2011) Highly efficient CuO incorporated TiO2 nanotube photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water. Int J Hydrog Energy 36:6560–6568. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Xu P, Zeng ZM, Huang DL, Feng CL, Hu S, Zhao MH, Lai C, Wei Z, Huang C, Xie GX, Liu ZF (2012) Use of iron oxide nanomaterials in wastewater treatment: a review. Sci Total Environ 424:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Xu L, Wang Z, Wang J, Xiao Z, Huang X, Liu Z, Wang S (2017) N-doped nanoporous Co3O4 nanosheets with oxygen vacancies as oxygen evolving electrocatalysts. Nanotechnology 28:165402. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yang Z, Yao Z, Li G, Fang G, Nie H, Liu Z, Zhou X, Chen XA, Huang S (2012) Sulfur-doped graphene as an efficient metal-free cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction. ACS Nano 6:205–211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yang H, Kumar S, Zou S (2013) Electroreduction of O2 on uniform arrays of Pt nanoparticles. J Electroanal Chem 688:180–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yun HJ, Lee H, Joo JB, Kim ND, Yi J (2011) Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle shape on hydrogen evolution via water splitting. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 11:1688–1691. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang Y, Deng B, Zhang T, Gao D, Xu AW (2010) Shape effects of Cu2O polyhedral microcrystals on photocatalytic activity. J Phys Chem C 114:5073–5079. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang Y, Wu B, Xu H, Liu H, Wang M, He Y, Pan B (2016) Nanomaterials-enabled water and wastewater treatment. NanoImpact 3–4:22–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Science Education and Research BhopalBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations