Nanocarbons-Supported and Polymers-Supported Titanium Dioxide Nanostructures as Efficient Photocatalysts for Remediation of Contaminated Wastewater and Hydrogen Production

  • Kakarla Raghava Reddy
  • M. S. Jyothi
  • A. V. Raghu
  • V. Sadhu
  • S. Naveen
  • Tejraj M. Aminabhavi
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 30)


Organic contaminants (textile dyes, pesticides) in industrial wastewater have adverse effects on the environment and human health. Such environmental pollutants are resistant in the environment and are difficult to completely remove through treatment techniques. Therefore, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure-based photocatalytic processes have received much attention due to their environmentally green nature with high efficiency for complete photodegradation of organic pollutants to produce safe and clean water.

In this chapter, zero-dimensional to three-dimensional TiO2 nanostructures functionalized with various polymeric and nanocarbon hybrid materials are discussed as low-cost, nontoxic, and highly efficient photocatalytic materials for photodegradation of chemical pollutants, in comparison with pristine TiO2, through expansion of the visible light photoresponse and regulation of the bandgap properties of TiO2. Various chemical synthesis methods, surface modifications with various polymers and nanostructured carbons, compositions, morphological structures, growth mechanisms, physicochemical properties, electronic and optical characteristics, and photocatalytic mechanisms (e.g., reactive oxygen species generation) of various heterostructured TiO2-based photocatalysts are discussed in terms of their prospects and future challenges in the fields of photocatalytic environmental remediation and hydrogen generation.


Photocatalysis TiO2 Nanocarbons Graphene Reduced graphene oxide Carbon nanotubes Conjugated polymers Hybrid photocatalysts Chemical synthesis Surface modification Morphology control Heterostructures Bandgap properties Photocatalytic mechanism Organic chemical pollutants Water treatment Organic dye degradation Environmental remediation Hydrogen evolution 



Wavelength (nm)


Specific wavelength maximum (nm)




2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid






Activated carbon


Atomic layer deposition


Ammonium persulfate


Path length of sample (m)


Bisphenol A


Concentration (mol/m3)


Initial concentration (mol/m3)


Conduction band


Electrophoretic deposition–anodization


Compact fluorescent lamp


Carbon nanotube


Chemical oxygen demand


Chemical vapor deposition


Digital scanning calorimeter


Molar absorptivity (m2/mol)




Bandgap energy


Field emission scanning electron microscopy


Fourier transform infrared




Graphene oxide


Degree of photocatalytic degradation




Highest occupied molecular orbital


Photon energy


Rate constant (min−1)


Light-emitting diode


Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital


Methylene blue


Methyl orange


Multiwalled carbon nanotube




Poly(acrylic acid)








Poly(ethylene terephthalate)


Poly(methyl methacrylate)




Polypropylene fabric










Poly(vinyl alcohol)


Polyvinyl acetate


Polyvinyl chloride


Poly(vinylidene difluoride)


Relative concentration


Reduced graphene oxide


Rhodamine B




Sodium dodecyl sulfate


Single-walled carbon nanotube


Time (min)




Crystallization temperature (K)


Transformer-coupled plasma


Transmission electron microscopy


Glass transition temperature (°C)


Thermogravimetric analyzer






Valence band


X-ray diffraction


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kakarla Raghava Reddy
    • 1
  • M. S. Jyothi
    • 2
  • A. V. Raghu
    • 2
  • V. Sadhu
    • 3
  • S. Naveen
    • 2
  • Tejraj M. Aminabhavi
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Chemical & Biomolecular EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Basic Sciences, School of Engineering and TechnologyJAIN Deemed-to-be UniversityBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.School of Physical Sciences, Banasthali VidyapithBanasthali, RajasthanIndia
  4. 4.Soniya College of PharmacyDharwadIndia

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