Solar Photocatalysis Applications to Antibiotic Degradation in Aquatic Systems

  • Margarita Jiménez-Tototzintle
  • Enrico Mendes SaggioroEmail author
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 30)


Contaminant such as pesticides, veterinary products, industrial compounds, food additives, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals may cause a negative effect when comes into contact with the environment. The presence of these compounds can be generated toxic effects in the aquatic system and cause an irreparable ecological alteration. Antibiotic compounds are one of the main pollutants found in the aquatic systems, because they are often inadequately prescribed and as a part of antibiotics is not completely consumed or degraded in human and animal bodies. Their residues can be entered in aquatic systems by wastewater treatment plants. The presences of antibiotics in aquatic systems have been linked to increasing microorganism antibiotic resistance through different mutations. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed for the treatment of antibiotic in aqueous systems, including solar photocatalysis. Several parameters are necessary to take into account in solar photocatalysis treatment to eliminate antibiotics, since these compounds display different physicochemical and biological properties. This chapter discusses the effect of parameters and pathways (transformation products) of solar photocatalysis of antibiotic groups usually found in aquatic systems as macrolides, sulfones, lincosamides, and quinolone.


Antibiotics Antibiotic resistance bacteria Aquatic systems Advanced oxidation processes Solar photocatalysis Wastewater treatment plants 



Saggioro, E.M. would like to thank FAPERJ for financial support (E-26/010.002117/2015 and E-26/203.165/2017).


  1. Abellán MN, Bayarri B, Giménez J, Costa J (2007) Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in aqueous suspension of TiO2. Appl Catal B Environ 74:233–241. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abellán MN, Giménez J, Esplugas S (2009) Photocatalytic degradation of antibiotics: The case of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Catal Today 144:131–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adriaenssens N, Coenen S, Kroes ACM, Versporten A, Vankerckhoven V, Muller A, Blix HS, Goossens H, Mittermayer H, Vaerenberg S, Markova B, Andrašević A, Kontemeniotis A, Vlček J, Frimodt-Møller N, Rootslane L, Vuopio-Varkila J, Cavalie P, Kern W, Giamarellou H, Ternák G, Briem H, Cunney R, Raz R, Folino P, Dumpis U, Valinteliene R, Bruch M, Borg M, Natsch S, Blix HS, Hryniewicz W, Ribeirinho M, Băicuş A, Ratchina S, Foltán V, Čižman M, Campos J, Skoog G, Zanetti G, Ünal S, Davey P (2011) European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): systemic antiviral use in Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother 66:1897–1905. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmadi M, Rahmani H, Takdastan A, Jaafarzadeh N, Mostoufi A (2016) A novel catalytic process for degradation of bisphenol A from aqueous solutions: a synergistic effect of nano −Fe3O4@Alg-Fe on O3/H2O2. Process Saf Environ Prot 104:413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander J, Knopp G, Dötsch A, Wieland A, Schwartz T (2016) Ozone treatment of conditioned wastewater selects antibiotic resistance genes, opportunistic bacteria, and induce strong population shifts. Sci Total Environ 559:103–112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. An T, Yang H, Li G, Song W, Cooper WJ, Nie X (2010) Kinetics and mechanism of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in degradation of ciprofloxacin in water. Appl Catal B Environ 94:288–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ani JK, Savithri S, Surender GD (2005) Characteristics of Titania Nanoparticles Synthesized Through Low Temperature Aerosol Process. Water 5:1–13Google Scholar
  8. Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S (2014) Lipid peroxidation: Production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Oxidative Med Cell Longev 2014:31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batt AL, Bruce IB, Aga DS (2006) Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges. Environ Pollut 142:295–302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernabeu A, Vercher RF, Santos-juanes L, Simón PJ, Lardín C, Martínez MA, Vicente JA, González R, Llosá C, Arques A, Amat AM (2011) Solar photocatalysis as a tertiary treatment to remove emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Catal Today 161:235–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bielen A, Šimatović A, Kosić-Vukšić J, Senta I, Ahel M, Babić S, Jurina T, González Plaza JJ, Milaković M, Udiković-Kolić N (2017) Negative environmental impacts of antibiotic-contaminated effluents from pharmaceutical industries. Water Res 126:79–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Binas V, Venieri D, Kotzias D (2017) Modified TiO2 based photocatalysts for improved air and health quality. J Mater 3:3–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Binh VN, Dang N, Anh NTK, Ky LX, Thai PK (2018) Antibiotics in the aquatic environment of Vietnam: Sources, concentrations, risk and control strategy. Chemosphere 197:438. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bottoni P, Caroli S (2015) Detection and quantification of residues and metabolites of medicinal products in environmental compartments, food commodities and workplaces. A review. J Pharm Biomed Anal 106:3–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Byrne C, Subramanian G, Pillai SC (2017) Recent advances in photocatalysis for environmental applications. J Environ Chem Eng 6:3531. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calza P, Baudino S, Aigotti R, Baiocchi C, Pelizzetti E (2003) Ion trap tandem mass spectrometric identification of thiabendazole phototransformation products on titanium dioxide. J Chromatogr A 984:59–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carbajo J, Jiménez M, Miralles S, Malato S, Faraldos M, Bahamonde A (2016) Study of application of titania catalysts on solar photocatalysis: Influence of type of pollutants and water matrices. Chem Eng J 291:64–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carp O, Huisman CL, Reller A (2004) Photoinduced reactivity of titanium dioxide. Prog Solid State Chem 32:33–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen K-L, Liu L-C, Chen W-R (2017) Adsorption of sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine antibiotics in high organic content soils. Environ Pollut 231:1163–1171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheng W, Jiang L, Lu N, Ma L, Sun X, Luo Y, Lin K, Cui C (2015) Development of a method for trace level determination of antibiotics in drinking water sources by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Methods 7:1777–1787. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chun Hu *, Guo J, Qu J, Hu X (2007) Photocatalytic Degradation of Pathogenic Bacteria with AgI/TiO2 under visible light irradiation. Langmuir 23(9):4982–4987. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dąbrowska M, Muszyńska B, Starek M, Żmudzki P, Opoka W (2018) Degradation pathway of cephalosporin antibiotics by in vitro cultures of Lentinula edodes and Imleria badia. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 127:104–112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dedola G, Fasani E, Albini A (1999) The photoreactions of trimethoprim in solution. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 123:47–51. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Durán-Álvarez JC, Avella E, Ramírez-Zamora RM, Zanella R (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin using mono- (Au, Ag and Cu) and bi- (Au-Ag and Au-Cu) metallic nanoparticles supported on TiO2under UV-C and simulated sunlight. Catal Today 266:175–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebele AJ, Abou-Elwafa Abdallah M, Harrad S (2017) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the freshwater aquatic environment. Emerg Contam 3:1–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fakhri A, Rashidi S, Tyagi I, Agarwal S, Gupta VK (2016) Photodegradation of Erythromycin antibiotic by γ-Fe2O3/SiO2nanocomposite: Response surface methodology modeling and optimization. J Mol Liq 214:378–383. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fernández P, Blanco J, Sichel C, Malato S (2005) Water disinfection by solar photocatalysis using compound parabolic collectors. Catal Today 101:345–352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fleeger JW, Carman KR, Nisbet RM (2003) Indirect effects of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Sci Total Environ 317:207–233. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gao B, Dong S, Liu J, Liu L, Feng Q, Tan N, Liu T, Bo L, Wang L (2016) Identification of intermediates and transformation pathways derived from photocatalytic degradation of five antibiotics on ZnIn2S4. Chem Eng J 304:826–840. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. García-Fernández I, Fernández-Calderero I, Inmaculada Polo-López M, Fernández-Ibáñez P (2015) Disinfection of urban effluents using solar TiO2 photocatalysis: A study of significance of dissolved oxygen, temperature, type of microorganism and water matrix. Catal Today 240:30–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guo X, Feng C, Zhang J, Tian C, Liu J (2017) Role of dams in the phase transfer of antibiotics in an urban river receiving wastewater treatment plant effluent. Sci Total Environ 607–608:1173–1179. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haddad T, Kümmerer K (2014) Characterization of photo-transformation products of the antibiotic drug Ciprofloxacin with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in combination with accurate mass determination using an LTQ-Orbitrap. Chemosphere 115:40–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hartmann A, Alder AC, Koller T, Widmer RM (1998) Identification of fluoroquinolone antibiotics as the main source of umuC genotoxicity in native hospital wastewater. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:377–382. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hassani A, Khataee A, Karaca S (2015) Photocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin by synthesized TiO<inf>2</inf> nanoparticles on montmorillonite: Effect of operation parameters and artificial neural network modeling. J Mol Catal A Chem 409:149–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hu X, Zhou Q, Luo Y (2010) Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China. Environ Pollut 158:2992–2998. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hu J, Zhou J, Zhou S, Wu P, Tsang YF (2018) Occurrence and fate of antibiotics in a wastewater treatment plant and their biological effects on receiving waters in Guizhou. Process Saf Environ Prot 113:483–490. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jiménez-Tototzintle M, Oller I, Hernández-Ramírez A, Malato S, Maldonado MI (2015) Remediation of agro-food industry effluents by biotreatment combined with supported TiO2/H2O2 solar photocatalysis. Chem Eng J 273:205–213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnson AC, Keller V, Dumont E, Sumpter JP (2015) Assessing the concentrations and risks of toxicity from the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin in European rivers. Sci Total Environ 511:747–755. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kang AJ, Brown AK, Wong CS, Yuan Q (2018) Removal of antibiotic sulfamethoxazole by anoxic/anaerobic/oxic granular and suspended activated sludge processes. Bioresour Technol 251:151–157. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Karaolia P, Michael-Kordatou I, Hapeshi E, Drosou C, Bertakis Y, Christofilos D, Armatas GS, Sygellou L, Schwartz T, Xekoukoulotakis NP, Fatta-Kassinos D (2018) Removal of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their associated genes by graphene-based TiO2 composite photocatalysts under solar radiation in urban wastewaters. Appl Catal B Environ 224:810–824. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koenig SG, Dillon B (2017) Driving toward greener chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry. Curr Opin Green Sustain Chem 7:56–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lam MW, Young CJ, Brain RA, Johnson DJ, Hanson MA, Wilson CJ, Richards SM, Solomon KR, Mabury SA (2004) AQUATIC PERSISTENCE OF EIGHT PHARMACEUTICALS IN A MICROCOSM STUDY. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:1431. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Le-Minh N, Khan SJ, Drewes JE, Stuetz RM (2010) Fate of antibiotics during municipal water recycling treatment processes. Water Res 44:4295–4323. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lindsley CW (2017) New 2016 Data and Statistics for Global Pharmaceutical Products and Projections through 2017. ACS Chem Neurosci 8:1635–1636. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Litter MI (1999) Heterogeneous photocatalysis: Transition metal ions in photocatalytic systems. Appl Catal B Environ 23:89–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lüddeke F, Heß S, Gallert C, Winter J, Güde H, Löffler H (2015) Removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques. Water Res 69:243–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luiz DB, Genena AK, Virmond E, José HJ, Moreira RFPM, Gebhardt W, Schröder HF (2010) Identification of Degradation Products of Erythromycin A Arising from Ozone and Advanced Oxidation Process Treatment. Water Environ Res 82:797–805. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Luo X, Zheng Z, Greaves J, Cooper WJ, Song W (2012) Trimethoprim: Kinetic and mechanistic considerations in photochemical environmental fate and AOP treatment. Water Res 46:1327–1336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Malato S, Blanco J, Vidal A, Alarcón D, Maldonado MI, Cáceres J, Gernjak W (2003) Applied studies in solar photocatalytic detoxification: an overview. Sol Energy 75:329–336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malato S, Fernández-Ibáñez P, Maldonado MI, Blanco J, Gernjak W (2009) Decontamination and disinfection of water by solar photocatalysis: Recent overview and trends. Catal Today 147:1–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Martínez-Costa JI, Rivera-Utrilla J, Leyva-Ramos R, Sánchez-Polo M, Velo-Gala I (2017) Individual and simultaneous degradation of antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim by UV and solar radiation in aqueous solution using bentonite and vermiculite as photocatalysts. Appl Clay Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Michael I, Hapeshi E, Osorio V, Perez S, Petrovic M, Zapata A, Malato S, Barceló D, Fatta-Kassinos D (2012) Solar photocatalytic treatment of trimethoprim in four environmental matrices at a pilot scale: Transformation products and ecotoxicity evaluation. Sci Total Environ 430:167–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mokh S, El Khatib M, Koubar M, Daher Z, Al Iskandarani M (2017) Innovative SPE-LC-MS/MS technique for the assessment of 63 pharmaceuticals and the detection of antibiotic-resistant-bacteria: A case study natural water sources in Lebanon. Sci Total Environ 609:830–841. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moosavi FS, Tavakoli T (2016) Amoxicillin degradation from contaminated water by solar photocatalysis using response surface methodology (RSM). Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:23262–23270. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nakata K, Ochiai T, Murakami T, Fujishima A (2012) Photoenergy conversion with TiO2photocatalysis: New materials and recent applications. Electrochim Acta 84:103–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ohtani B (2010) Photocatalysis A to Z-What we know and what we do not know in a scientific sense. J Photochem Photobiol C: Photochem Rev 11:157–178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Park JY, Huwe B (2016) Effect of pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soils. Environ Pollut 213:561–570. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Paul T, Dodd MC, Strathmann TJ (2010) Photolytic and photocatalytic decomposition of aqueous ciprofloxacin: Transformation products and residual antibacterial activity. Water Res 44:3121–3132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Prieto-Rodriguez L, Miralles-Cuevas S, Oller I, Agüera A, Puma GL, Malato S (2012) Treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents by solar photocatalysis using low TiO2concentrations. J Hazard Mater 211–212:131–137. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pruden A, Arabi M, Storteboom HN (2012) Correlation between upstream human activities and riverine antibiotic resistance genes. Environ Sci Technol 46:11541–11549. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rivera-Jaimes JA, Postigo C, Melgoza-Alemán RM, Aceña J, Barceló D, López de Alda M (2018) Study of pharmaceuticals in surface and wastewater from Cuernavaca, Morelos. Mexico: Occurrence and environmental risk assessment Sci Total Environ 613–614:1263–1274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rizzo L, Manaia C, Merlin C, Schwartz T, Dagot C, Ploy MC, Michael I, Fatta-Kassinos D (2013) Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes spread into the environment: A review. Sci Total Environ 447:345–360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Chamorro S, Marti E, Huerta B, Gros M, Sànchez-Melsió A, Borrego CM, Barceló D, Balcázar JL (2015) Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in hospital and urban wastewaters and their impact on the receiving river. Water Res 69:234–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosal R, Rodríguez A, Perdigón-Melón JA, Petre A, García-Calvo E, Gómez MJ, Agüera A, Fernández-Alba AR (2010) Occurrence of emerging pollutants in urban wastewater and their removal through biological treatment followed by ozonation. Water Res 44:578–588. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ryan CC, Tan DT, Arnold WA (2011) Direct and indirect photolysis of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in wastewater treatment plant effluent. Water Res 45:1280–1286. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Saggioro EM, Oliveira AS, Pavesi T, Tototzintle MJ, Maldonado MI, Correia FV, Moreira JC (2014) Solar CPC pilot plant photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in waters and wastewaters using suspended and supported-TiO2. Influence of photogenerated species. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:12112–12121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Salma A, Thoröe-Boveleth S, Schmidt TC, Tuerk J (2016) Dependence of transformation product formation on pH during photolytic and photocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin. J Hazard Mater 313:49–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sharma VK, Johnson N, Cizmas L, McDonald TJ, Kim H (2016) A review of the influence of treatment strategies on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. Chemosphere 150:702–714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Silva AR, Martins PM, Teixeira S, Carabineiro SAC, Kuehn K, Cuniberti G, Alves MM, Lanceros-Mendez S, Pereira L (2016) Ciprofloxacin wastewater treated by UVA photocatalysis: contribution of irradiated TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles on the final toxicity as assessed by Vibrio fischeri. RSC Adv 6:95494–95503. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sirtori C, Agüera A, Gernjak W, Malato S (2010) Effect of water-matrix composition on Trimethoprim solar photodegradation kinetics and pathways. Water Res 44:2735–2744. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tahrani L, Soufi L, Mehri I, Najjari A, Hassan A, Van J, Reyns T, Cherif A, Mansour HB (2015) Isolation and characterization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from pharmaceutical industrial wastewaters. Microb Pathog 89:54–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tannoury M, Attieh Z (2017) The Influence of Emerging Markets on the Pharmaceutical Industry. Curr Ther Res - Clin Exp 86:19–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thayanukul P, Kurisu F, Kasuga I, Furumai H (2013) Evaluation of microbial regrowth potential by assimilable organic carbon in various reclaimed water and distribution systems. Water Res 47:225–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tran NH, Reinhard M, Gin KYH (2018) Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plants from different geographical regions-a review. Water Res 133:182–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vignesh K, Rajarajan M, Suganthi A (2014) Photocatalytic degradation of erythromycin under visible light by zinc phthalocyanine-modified titania nanoparticles. Mater Sci Semicond Process 23:98–103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Von Döhren H (2009) Antibiotics: Actions, origins, resistance, by C. Walsh. 2003. Washington, DC: ASM Press. 345 pp. $99.95 (hardcover). Protein Sci 13:3059–3060. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang F, Feng Y, Chen P, Wang Y, Su Y, Zhang Q, Zeng Y, Xie Z, Liu H, Liu Y, Lv W, Liu G (2018) Photocatalytic degradation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using ordered mesoporous g-C3N4under simulated sunlight irradiation: Kinetics, mechanism, and antibacterial activity elimination. Appl Catal B Environ 227:114–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Watkinson AJ, Murby EJ, Kolpin DW, Costanzo SD (2009) The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: From wastewater to drinking water. Sci Total Environ 407:2711–2723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. World Health Organization (2017) Safe management of wastes from health care activities. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  80. Xekoukoulotakis NP, Xinidis N, Chroni M, Mantzavinos D, Venieri D, Hapeshi E, Fatta-Kassinos D (2010) UV-A/TiO2 photocatalytic decomposition of erythromycin in water: Factors affecting mineralization and antibiotic activity. Catal Today 151:29–33. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zanotto C, Bissa M, Illiano E, Mezzanotte V, Marazzi F, Turolla A, Antonelli M, De Giuli Morghen C, Radaelli A (2016) Identification of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Chemosphere 164:627–633. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhang Y, Hu S, Zhang H, Shen G, Yuan Z, Zhang W (2017) Degradation kinetics and mechanism of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in an agricultural soil system with manure application. Sci Total Environ 607–608:1348–1356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhu Y, Wang Y, Jiang X, Zhou S, Wu M, Pan M, Chen H (2017) Microbial community compositional analysis for membrane bioreactor treating antibiotics containing wastewater. Chem Eng J 325:300–309. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margarita Jiménez-Tototzintle
    • 1
  • Enrico Mendes Saggioro
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Sanitation and Environment Health DepartmentNational School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz FoundationRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations