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Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Oil

Abstract

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) has received attention worldwide for its commercial value as fiber applications. Kenaf seeds, a by-product from kenaf plant yield kenaf seed oil with no toxicity and primarily contributed by triacylglycerols (99.81%) followed by free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, and monoacylglycerols. Extensive research has related to the processing and applications of kenaf seed oil, which highlighted its potential to use as functional edible oil that advantageous in the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industry. A chemical refining process with different parameters in each stage has been studied to produce refined kenaf seed oil with removed gums, hydroperoxides, and free fatty acid, as well as no 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol ester detected. Oleic acid (omega-9) and linoleic acid (omega-6) make up the majority of kenaf seed oil’s fatty acid composition, which is associated with cholesterol-lowering ability. Kenaf seed oil possesses significant health benefits and pharmacological activities such as antioxidant activity, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anti-thrombotic due to the presence of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, and phenolics). Nanoencapsulation and microencapsulation have been applied to the kenaf seed oil to improve its bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract. Oxidative stability of kenaf seed oil has been extended through microencapsulation techniques (spray drying and co-extrusion) and suitable to apply in the functional product development. The chemistry and functionality of kenaf seed oil are reviewed in this chapter to stimulate future research and impending applications.

Keywords

  • Oleic acid
  • Linoleic acid
  • Tocopherol
  • Tocotrienol
  • Phytosterol
  • Phenolic
  • Antioxidant

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Fig. 23.1
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Fig. 23.4
Fig. 23.5

Abbreviations

3-MCPD:

3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol

ABTS:

2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)

BCB:

β-carotene bleaching

DAG:

Diacylglycerol

DKSM:

Defatted kenaf seed meal

DPPH:

2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

EM:

Emulsifier mixtures

FFA:

Free fatty acid

IV:

Iodine value

KSOM:

Kenaf seed oil-in-water macroemulsion

KSON :

Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsion

LDL-C:

Low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol

MAG:

Monoacylglycerol

MDA:

Malondialdehyde

MUFA:

Monounsaturated fatty acid

p-AV:

p-Anisidine value

PUFA:

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

PV:

Peroxide value

RNS:

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

TAG:

Triacylglycerol

TOTOX:

Total oxidation

β-CD:

β-cyclodetxrin

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Chew, S.C., Nyam, K.L. (2019). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Oil. In: Ramadan, M. (eds) Fruit Oils: Chemistry and Functionality. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12473-1_23

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