Advertisement

The Mapping Crowd: Macrotask Crowdsourcing in Disaster Response

  • Ned PrutzerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Human–Computer Interaction Series book series (HCIS)

Abstract

Large-scale citizen involvement in disaster mapping is relatively recent yet impactful. Humanitarian OpenStreetMap (HOT) and Public Lab, two particular communities at the forefront of this shift, formed in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake and the 2010 BP Oil Spill, respectively. This chapter compares and contrasts how these online communities employ crowdsourcing to aid in disaster response efforts. I employ OpenStreetMap (OSM) Analytics; Social Network Analysis; interviews with members from both mapping communities; my own experiences contributing via participant observation; and insights from OSM Users’ Diaries and Public Lab research notes to do so. I also analyze community strategies and interface logistics involved in the work of both groups. Both communities are the result of ecologies of mobile applications, commercial imagery sets, government agencies, NGOs, and concerned citizens. The campaigns that result from these ecologies are branded as more efficient, cost-effective, and resonant with current political, economic, and social transformations. To help identify these changes, I overview imagined public uses of GPS explored within President Bill Clinton’s and President George W. Bush’s administrations. While the disaster response application fits within these intended uses on various levels, the scale of crowdsourcing applications demonstrated through these projects was largely unanticipated. In taking a historical perspective to the public use of GPS, I discuss how the rise of crowdsourced approaches correlates with an increased public unease with more traditional government responses to natural disasters that undergirds these communities.

References

  1. About Us. Youthmappers. Retrieved September 3, 2018, from https://www.youthmappers.org/about-us.
  2. Ahmouda, A., Hochmair, H. H., & Cvetojevic, S. (2018). Analyzing the effect of earthquakes on OpenStreetMap contribution patterns and tweeting activities. Geo-spatial Information Science, 21(3), 195–212.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10095020.2018.1498666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson-Tarver, C. (2015). Crisis mapping the 2010 earthquake in OpenStreetMap Haiti. Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations.Google Scholar
  4. Arroy, B. Biota survey for Devils Lake, ND. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved December 23, 2016, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/ceq/biota_survey_200507.html.
  5. Cartoscope. Retrieved July 16, 2018, from http://cartosco.pe/#/home.
  6. Chandler, D., & Kapelner, A. (2013). Breaking monotony with meaning: Motivation in crowdsourcing markets. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 90, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Charles G. Groat hosts ask the White House. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved October 11, 2004, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/ask/text/20041011.html.
  8. Coetzee, S., Minghini, M., Solis, P., Rautenbach, V., Green, C. (2018). Towards understanding the impact of mapathons—Reflecting on Youthmappers experiences. In The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-4/W8, FOSS4G 2018.Google Scholar
  9. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License. Creative Commons. Retrieved August 13, 2018, from https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.
  10. Dittus, M., Capra, L. (2017). Private peer feedback as engagement driver in humanitarian mapping. In Proceedings of ACM Human Computer Interaction, 1, 40:1–40:18.Google Scholar
  11. Dolan, T. E. (2010). Revisiting adhocracy: From rhetorical revisionism to smart mobs. Journal of Futures Studies, 15(2), 33–50.Google Scholar
  12. Hass, D., Ansel, J., Gu, L., Marcus, A. (2015). Argonaut: Macrotask crowdsourcing for complex data processing. In Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, 8(12), 1643–1644. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2824032.2824062.
  13. How Public Lab Is Funded. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from https://publiclab.org/wiki/how-we-are-funded.
  14. Hurricane Harvey: Flooding, Population, and Known Hazard Map. Mapbox. Retrieved July 16, 2018, from https://www.mapbox.com/bites/00368/#14.27/29.7032/-95.3549.
  15. Jemielniak, D. (2014). Common knowledge? An ethnography of Wikipedia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kamensky, J. A brief history of Vice President Al Gore’s National Partnership for Reinventing Government during the administration of President Bill Clinton 1993–2001. Retrieved January 12, 2001, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/whoweare/historyofnpr.html.
  17. Law, E., Yin, M., Goh, J., Chen, K., Terry, M., Gajos, K. Z. (2016). Curiosity killed the cat, but makes crowdwork better. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 4098–4110).Google Scholar
  18. Missing Maps. Retrieved June 11, 2018, from http://www.missingmaps.org.
  19. National Day of Civic Hacking. Code for America. Retrieved September 13, 2018, from https://www.codeforamerica.org/national-day-of-civic-hacking.
  20. OSM Analytics. Retrieved June 25, 2018, from http://osm-analytics.org/#/.
  21. Ouellette, L., Hay, J. (2008). Better living through reality TV: Television and post-welfare citizenship. Malden: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Partnerships. Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team. Retrieved October 30, 2017, from https://www.HOT.org/partnerships.
  23. PBS Newshour. North Carolina Florence flood disaster is growing. YouTube, 3:57. Retrieved September 17, 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcjmzHoiiGU.
  24. President Discusses War on Terror at Naval Academy Commencement. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved May 27, 2005, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/05/20050527.html.
  25. Press Briefing by FEMA Director David Paulison. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved July 31, 2006, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/07/20060731-4.html.
  26. Public Lab Cartography Collective. Retrieved July 16, 2018, from https://publiclab.org/wiki/public-lab-cartography-collective.
  27. Public Lab Store. Retrieved April 18, 2018, from https://publiclab.org/wiki/how-we-are-funded.
  28. PUBLIC LAW 107–347—DEC. 17 2002. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ347/pdf/PLAW-107publ347.pdf.
  29. Remarks by President George Bush, Prime Minister of Ireland Bertie Ahern, and President of the European Commission Romano Prodi in Press Availability. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved June 26, 2004, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2004/06/20040626-16.html.
  30. Radiant Earth. Retrieved May 24, 2018, from https://www.radiant.earth.
  31. Richard Armitage hosts ask the White House. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved July 2, 2004, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/ask/20040702.html.
  32. Scoles, S. (2017, August 28). High-res satellites want to track human activity from space. Wired. https://www.wired.com/story/high-res-satellites-want-to-track-human-activity-from-space?_lrsc=71a78e96-c497-4126-93ef-37274fa9a3fb.
  33. Segal, C. Volunteers are helping Puerto Rico from home, with a map that anyone can edit. PBS Newshour. Retrieved October 1, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/volunteers-helping-puerto-rico-home-map-anyone-can-edit/#.WdJoSMeaRCI.twitter.
  34. The President’s New Freedom Initiative: The 2007 Progress Report. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/infocus/newfreedom/newfreedom-report-2007-3.html.
  35. Urban Innovations: Crowdsourcing Non-Camp Refugee Data. Humanitarian OpenStreetMap team. Retrieved October 31, 2017, from https://www.HOT.org/projects/urban_innovations_crowdsourcing_non_camp_refugee_data.
  36. U.S.—Canada Smart Border/30 Point Action Plan Update. George W. Bush White House Archives. Retrieved December 6, 2002, from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/12/20021206-1.html.
  37. Warren, J. (2010). Grassroots mapping: Tools for participatory and activist cartography. Master’s thesis, MIT.Google Scholar
  38. Wilkinson Bay, Louisiana. July 22, 2010. CC-BY-SA 2010.Google Scholar
  39. Yin, A. (2017, October 2). A mapathon to pinpoint areas hardest hit in Puerto Rico. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/02/nyregion/maps-puerto-rico-hurricane-maria.html.
  40. Zheng, H., Li, D., & Hou, W. (2011). Task design, motivation, and participation in crowdsourcing contests. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 15(4), 57–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communications and Media, Institute of Communications ResearchUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations