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Toward an Integrative Conceptual Model on the Relations Between Discrimination and Prosocial Behaviors in US Latino/Latina Youth

  • Alexandra N. DavisEmail author
  • Gustavo Carlo
Chapter

Abstract

Theorists and scholars assert that ethnic/racial marginalization and discrimination have important deleterious consequences for adolescents Schmitt, M. T., & Branscombe, N. R. (2002). The meaning and consequences of perceived discrimination in disadvantaged and privileged social groups. European Review of Social Psychology, 12(1), 167-199. US Latino adolescents are at high risk for experiencing such discrimination, and, therefore, understanding the associations between discrimination and developmental outcomes in this population is important. Traditionally, research on discrimination and US Latino youth development has focused on maladjustment, such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms (see Brittian et al. J Youth Adolesc 42(3):328–341, 2013). However, several scholars (e.g., Cabrera, Soc Policy Rep 27:1–30, 2013) have noted the need to study both positive and negative outcomes in Latino populations to redress deficit models and provide a more balanced perspective on US Latino youth. One indicator of positive adjustment and social functioning is prosocial behaviors, which are defined as actions intended to benefit others (Carlo & Randall, J Youth Adolesc 31(1):31–44, 2002). Prosocial behaviors are important markers of psychological and behavioral well-being, health, and social engagement. Discrimination is important for predicting prosocial behaviors particularly because of the social exclusion and marginalization that often occurs when adolescents perceive ethnic/racial bias. Discrimination experiences are also stressful, which may deplete the cognitive and emotional resources necessary to engage in prosocial behaviors (see Batson & Powell, Handbook of psychology, Volume 5: Personality and social psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 2003; Davis et al. J Youth Adolesc 45(3):457–470, 2016). Although the research on discrimination and prosocial behaviors is limited, the existing studies demonstrate complex relations among experiences of discrimination and multiple forms of prosocial behaviors. This chapter explores theories and research on the role of discrimination experiences in US Latino youth prosocial behaviors and the associated risk and protective factors.

Keywords

Cultural Stress Cultural values Depressive symptoms Discrimination Ethnic identity Family relationships Latino/a Youth Mental health Prosocial Behaviors Protective Factors Positive adjustment Protective factors Risk factors 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Individual, Family, and Community EducationUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Department of Human Development and Family ScienceUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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