Wire Bending

  • Padhraig Fleming
  • Jadbinder Seehra
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


Modern fixed appliances are programmed to deliver a desired prescription of tooth movement through a combination of different stages of treatment based on ligation of straight archwires into the bracket slot. Three ‘orders’ of control of tooth movement are incorporated in the bracket design: first order (‘in-out’ and rotational control), second order (mesio-distal angulation or ‘tip’) and third order (inclination or torque) correction. However, in reality the ideal alignment and occlusion are relatively rarely achieved. As such, wire bending is often required to detail the final outcome and is also occasionally required to facilitate achievement of other objectives including overbite reduction and space closure.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padhraig Fleming
    • 1
  • Jadbinder Seehra
    • 2
  1. 1.Orthodontics DepartmentQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of OrthodonticsKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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