Removal of Fixed Appliances
The technique for removing fixed appliances is well-established and typically involves the following steps: debonding of fixed appliance attachments, removal of adhesive remnants from the tooth surface using a tungsten carbide bur and polishing of the enamel surface (Retief and Denys 1979). Enamel loss following the removal of composite residue is commonplace (Ryf et al. 2012). Therefore, various alternatives to burs have been proposed including hand instruments, stones, wheels and discs, scalers, lasers and pumice or zirconium paste. Surface changes reduce the resistance of enamel to bacterial and organic acid attack increasing susceptibility to demineralisation and dental caries.