Removal of Fixed Appliances

  • Padhraig Fleming
  • Jadbinder Seehra
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


The technique for removing fixed appliances is well-established and typically involves the following steps: debonding of fixed appliance attachments, removal of adhesive remnants from the tooth surface using a tungsten carbide bur and polishing of the enamel surface (Retief and Denys 1979). Enamel loss following the removal of composite residue is commonplace (Ryf et al. 2012). Therefore, various alternatives to burs have been proposed including hand instruments, stones, wheels and discs, scalers, lasers and pumice or zirconium paste. Surface changes reduce the resistance of enamel to bacterial and organic acid attack increasing susceptibility to demineralisation and dental caries.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padhraig Fleming
    • 1
  • Jadbinder Seehra
    • 2
  1. 1.Orthodontics DepartmentQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of OrthodonticsKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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