Whale Optimization Algorithm: Theory, Literature Review, and Application in Designing Photonic Crystal Filters

  • Seyedehzahra Mirjalili
  • Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili
  • Shahrzad Saremi
  • Seyedali MirjaliliEmail author
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 811)


This chapter presents and analyzes the Whale Optimization Algorithm. The inspiration of this algorithm is first discussed in details, which is the bubble-net foraging behaviour of humpback whales in nature. The mathematical models of this algorithm is then discussed. Due to the large number of applications, a brief literature review of WOA is provided including recent works on the algorithms itself and its applications. The chapter also tests the performance of WOA on several test functions and a real case study in the field of photonic crystal filter. The qualitative and quantitative results show that merits of this algorithm for solving a wide range of challenging problems.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyedehzahra Mirjalili
    • 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili
    • 2
  • Shahrzad Saremi
    • 3
  • Seyedali Mirjalili
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and ComputingUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Institute for Integrated and Intelligent SystemsGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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