Sine Cosine Algorithm: Theory, Literature Review, and Application in Designing Bend Photonic Crystal Waveguides

  • Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili
  • Seyedeh Zahra Mirjalili
  • Shahrzad Saremi
  • Seyedali MirjaliliEmail author
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 811)


This chapter presented the Sine Cosine Algorithm (SCA), which is a recent meta-heuristics using mathematical equations to estimate the global optima of optimization problems. After discussing the mathematical model, a brief literature review is given covering the most recent improvements and applications of this algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is benchmarked on a wide range of test functions showing the flexibility of SCA in solving diverse problems with different characteristics. The chapter also considers finding an optimal design for a bend photonics crystal that shows the merits of this algorithm is solving challenging real-world problems.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyed Mohammad Mirjalili
    • 1
  • Seyedeh Zahra Mirjalili
    • 2
  • Shahrzad Saremi
    • 3
  • Seyedali Mirjalili
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.School of Electrical Engineering and ComputingUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  3. 3.Institute for Integrated and Intelligent SystemsGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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