Modeling and Analysis of the Port Logistical Business Processes and Categorization of Main Logistics Costs
Foreign trade in Chile accounts for approximately 30% of the GDP (gross domestic product). In 2015, from the total volume, 92% of the imports and 96% of the exports were transferred by maritime ports. Hence, maritime ports are key nodes of the global transport chain with a strategic role on the country’s economic development. The export and import processes imply a physical flow of the cargo and transportation vehicles, as well as an information flow that is exchanged among the different stakeholders involved. Information transmission can be paper-based or electronic and following international standards and protocols. In the particular case of Chile, data has been traditionally interchanged in paper, lacking a harmonization and standardization of the different documents and information. This generates inefficient operations as well as a lack of coordination and visibility of cargo in the different processes and echelons of the port supply chain. In this chapter, we propose a framework for the modeling and analysis of port-logistics business processes, as well as the corresponding documents and costs. As a case study, we consider the logistics business processes with the participation of a bonded warehouse of the Port of Valparaiso in Chile. These are referred as the “direct and manifested import” business processes and the “Stacking and consolidation export” business process. For comparison purposes, we analyze the logistics costs for the case of the Port of Valparaiso in Chile, the Port of Buenaventura in Colombia, and the Port of Buenos Aires in Argentina. Recommendations to support the standardization of the related processes are presented for port authorities and related stakeholders.
We thank the undergraduate students Francisco Aldunate and Arnaldo Papaprieto for their work and dedication in their thesis that was the basis of this chapter. We also thank Luis M. Ascencio, the Technical Coordinator of the Program Network of Digital and Collaborative Network of Ports in Latin America and the Caribbean, for his valuable contributions in the validation of the results presented herein.
- Heilig L, Lalla-Ruiz E, Voß S (2017) Digital transformation in maritime ports: analysis and a game theoretic framework. Econ Res Electron Netw 18:1–28Google Scholar
- Ismail NW, Mahyideen JM (2015) The impact of infrastructure on trade and economic growth in selected economies in Asia. Working Paper Series 553, Asian Development Bank Institute, ManilaGoogle Scholar
- Márquez-Ramos L, Martínez Zarzoso I, García EP, Wilmsmeier G (2007a) Determinantes de los costes de transporte marítimos. el caso de las exportaciones españolas. Informacion comercial espanola- Monthly Edition 834:79Google Scholar
- Márquez-Ramos L, Martínez-Zarzoso I, Valenciaport F, Pérez-García E, Wilmsmeier G (2007b) Maritime knowledge network. Transporte marítimo: Costes de transporte y conectividad en el comercio exterior español. In: González-Laxe, Sánchez, Lecciones de Economía Marítima, Spain, Netbiblo, pp 105–144Google Scholar
- Martínez Zarzoso I, Wilmsmeier G (2010) International transport costs and the margins of intra-Latin American maritime trade. Aussenwirtschaft 65(1):49Google Scholar
- Martinez Zarzoso I, Wilmsmeier G et al (2011) Trade responses to freight rates: the case of intra latiamerican maritime trade. Eur Transp (Trasporti Europei) 2011(48):24–46Google Scholar
- Nguyen H-O, Chin A, Tongzon J, Bandara M (2016) Analysis of strategic pricing in the port sector: the network approach. Marit Econ Logist 18(3):264–281Google Scholar
- Octavio DN, Sánchez Ricardo J (2006) Indicadores de productividad para la industria portuaria. In: Aplicación de América Latina y el Caribe. CEPAL. Serie Recursos Naturales e Infraestructura, vol 112Google Scholar
- Orlic Protega A, Rogic K, Vrdoljak J (2011) Logistic approaches to port management system. In: Annals of DAAAM & proceedingsGoogle Scholar
- UNCTAD (2017) Review of maritime transport, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD/RMT/2017Google Scholar