Advertisement

Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA) Events: Learning from the Past to Predict the Future

  • Antonietta QuiggEmail author
  • Uta Passow
  • Kendra L. Daly
  • Adrian Burd
  • David J. Hollander
  • Patrick T. Schwing
  • Kenneth Lee
Chapter

Abstract

Despite interest as early as in the 1880s, it was not until 1953 that Tokimi Tsujita (Seikai Fisheries Research Laboratory, Japan) was able to carefully collect and describe the matrix of microorganisms embedded in suspended organic matter (Tsujita, J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 8:1–14, 1953) that today we call marine snow. Subsequent studies reported that marine snow consisted of phytoplankton, small zooplankton, fecal material, and other particles (Nishizawa et al., Bull Fac Fish, Hokkaido Univ. 5:36–40, 1954). Across the ocean, Riley (Limnol Oceanogr 8:372–381, 1963) called this material “organic aggregates” which in addition to the organic material included nonliving material that was a “substrate for bacterial growth.” More than a decade later, Silver et al. (Science 201:371–373, 1978) quantified the abundance of marine snow, and its contribution to the total community in situ, and showed that marine snow particles were “metabolic hotspots,” with concentrations of microorganisms 3–4 orders of magnitude greater than those in the surrounding seawater. Alldredge and Cohen (Science 235:689–691, 1987) emphasized the importance of marine snow as unique chemical and physical microhabitats. The importance of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), which form the matrix that embeds the individual component particles of marine snow, were described and quantified in the early 1990s (Alldredge et al., Deep-Sea Res I 40: 1131–1140, 1993; Passow and Alldredge, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 113:185–198, 1994; Passow et al., Deep-Sea Res Oceanogr Abstr 41:335–357, 1994).

The long-held belief that marine snow was both a specialized habitat and potential food source for those living in the deep ocean was also demonstrated at that time (Silver and Gowing, Prog Oceanogr 26:75–113, 1991). More recently it was confirmed that marine snow does indeed contribute significantly to the metabolism of the deep sea and provides hotspots of microbial diversity and activity at depth (e.g., Burd et al., Deep-Sea Res II 57:1557–1571, 2010; Bochdansky et al., Sci Rep 6:22633, 2016). Moreover, marine snow is now considered a transport vehicle for its biota and associated particulate matter (Volk and Hoffert, The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO: natural variations archean to present. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 99–110, 1985; Alldredge and Gotschalk, Limnol Oceanogr 33:339–351, 1988). Rapidly sinking marine snow is important in the marine carbon cycle as it is responsible for vertical (re)distribution and remineralization of carbon. The transport of carbon from the surface to the deep sea is known as the “biological carbon pump” (De La Rocha and Passow, Deep Sea Res II 54:639–658, 2007; De La Rocha and Passow, Treatise on Geochemistry. Vol. 8, Elsevier, Oxford, 2014). This pump, which leads to the uptake and sequestration of atmospheric CO2 (e.g., Volk and Hoffert, The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO: natural variations archean to present. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 99–110, 1985; Finkel et al., J Plankton Res 32:119–137, 2010; Zetsche and Ploug, Mar Chem 175:1–4, 2015), also plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements (e.g., Quigg et al., Nature 425:291–294, 2003; Quigg et al., Proc R Soc: Biol Sci 278:526–534, 2011). How climate change will change these processes is the subject of intense interest but beyond the scope of this chapter.

Keywords

Marine snow Marine oil snow MOSSFA Deepwater Horizon OMA OSA TEP EPS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was made possible by a grant from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative to Quigg (ADDOMEx), Passow (ADDOMEx, ECOGIG, FOMOSA), Daly (C-IMAGE, FOMOSA), Burd (FOMOSA), and Schwing/Hollander (C-IMAGE). Research support was also provided by the University of South Florida Division of Sponsored Research and Florida Institute of Oceanography to Daly and by the Multi-Partner Research Initiative, via the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, to Passow.

References

  1. Alldredge AL (2005) The contribution of discarded appendicularian houses to the flux of particulate organic carbon from oceanic surface waters. In: Gorsky G, Youngbluth MJ, Deibel D (eds) Response of marine ecosystems to global change: ecological impact of appendicularians. Éditions Scientifiques, Paris, 435 pp. ISBN:2-8470-302-9-8Google Scholar
  2. Alldredge AL, Passow U, Logan BE (1993) The abundance and significance of a class of large, transparent organic particles in the ocean. Deep-Sea Res I 40:1131–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alldredge AL, Silver MW (1988) Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow. Prog Oceanogr 20:41–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alldredge AL, Gotschalk C (1988) In situ settling behavior of marine snow. Limnol Oceanogr 33:339–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alldredge AL, Cohen Y (1987) Can microscale chemical patches persist in the sea?: microelectrode study of marine snow, fecal pellets. Science 235:689–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Almeda R, Connelly T, Buskey EJ (2014a) Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea. Nat Sci Rep 4:7560.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep07560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Almeda R, Hyatt C, Buskey EJ (2014b) Toxicity of dispersant Corexit 9500A and crude oil to marine microzooplankton. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 106:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Almeda R, Baca S, Hyatt C, Buskey EJ (2014c) Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods. Ecotoxicology 23:988–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arnosti C, Ziervogel K, Yang T, Teske A (2016) Oil-derived marine aggregates – hot spots of polysaccharide degradation by specialized bacterial communities. Deep-Sea Res II Top Stud Oceanogr 129:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aveyard R, Binks BP, Clint JH (2003) Emulsions stabilized solely by colloidal particles. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 100–102:503–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baelum J, Borglin S, Chakraborty R, Fortney J, Lamendella R, Mason O, Auer M, Zemla BM, Conrad M, Malfatti S, Tringe S, Holman H, Hazen T, Jansson J (2012) Deep-sea bacteria enriched by oil and dispersant from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Environ Microbiol 14:2405–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandara UC, Yapa PD, Xie H (2011) Fate and transport of oil in sediment laden marine waters. J Hydro Environ Res 5:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baguley J, Montagna P, Cooksey C, Hyland JL, Bang HW, Morrison C, Kamikawa A, Bennetts P, Saiyo G, Parsons E, Herdener M, Ricci M (2015) Community response of deep-sea soft-sediment metazoan meiofauna to the Deepwater Horizon blowout and oil spill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 528:127–140.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bar-Zeev E, Passow U, Romero-Vargas Castrillón S, Elimelech M (2015) Transparent exopolymer particles: from aquatic environments and engineered systems to membrane biofouling. Environ Sci Technol 49:691–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bianchi TS, Cook RL, Perdue EM, Kolic PE, Green N, Zhang Y, Smith RW, Kolker AS, Ameen A, King G, Ojwang LM, Schneider CL, Normand AE, Hetland R (2011) Impacts of diverted freshwater on dissolved organic matter and microbial communities in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, U. S. A. Mar Environ Res 72:248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bochdansky AB, Clouse MA, Herndl GJ (2017) Eukaryotic microbes, principally fungi and labyrinthulomycetes, dominate biomass on bathypelagic marine snow. ISME J 11:362–373.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2016.113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bochdansky AB, Clouse MA, Herndl GJ (2016) Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum. Sci Rep 6:22633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boehm PD, Fiest DL (1980) Aspects of the transport of petroleum hydrocarbons to the offshore benthos during the Ixtoc-I blowout in the Bay of Campeche. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Preliminary Results from the September, 1979 Pierce/Research IXTOC-1Cruises. Key Biscayne, Florida, June 9-10, 1980. Publications Office, NOAA/RD/MP3, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, NOAA, US Dept. of Commerce, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Bragg JR, Owens EH (1995) Shoreline cleansing by interactions between oil and fine mineral particles. International Oil Spill Conference Proc: February–March 1995, 1995, pp 219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bragg JR, Yang SH (1995) Clay-oil flocculation and its role in natural cleansing in Prince William sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. ASTM STP 1219:178–214Google Scholar
  21. Brakstad OG, Faksness L-G (2000) Biodegradation of water-accommodated fractions and dispersed oil in the seawater column. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Stavanger, 26–28Google Scholar
  22. Brooks GR, Larson RA, Schwing PT, Romero I, Moore C, Reichart G-J, Jilbert T, Chanton JP, Hastings DW, Overholt WA, Marks KP, Kostka JE, Holmes CW, Hollander D (2015) Sedimentation pulse in the NE Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 DWH Blowou. PLoS One 10:e0132341.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burd AB, Hansell DA, Steinberg DK, Anderson TR, Arístegui J, Baltar F, Beaupré SR, Buesseler KO, DeHairs F, Jackson GA, Kadko DC, Koppelmann R, Lampitt RS, Nagata T, Reinthaler T, Robinson C, Robison BH, Tamburini C, Tanaka T (2010) Assessing the apparent imbalance between geochemical and biochemical indicators of meso- and bathypelagic biological activity: what the @$#! is wrong with present calculations of carbon budgets? Deep-Sea Res II 57:1557–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burd AB, Jackson GA (2009) Particle aggregation. Annu Rev Mar Sci 1:65–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Buskey EJ, White HK, Esbaugh AJ (2016) Impact of oil spills on marine life in the Gulf of Mexico: effects on plankton, nekton, and deep-sea benthos. Oceanography 29:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cai Z, Fu J, Liu W, Fu K, O'Reilly SE, Zhao D (2017) Effects of oil dispersants on settling of marine sediment particles and particle-facilitated distribution and transport of oil components. Mar Pollut Bull 114:408–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Camilli R, Reddy CM, Yoerger DR, Van Mooy BAS, Jakuba MV, Kinsey JC, McIntyre CP, Sylva SP, Maloney JV (2010) Tracking hydrocarbon plume transport and biodegradation at Deepwater Horizon. Science 330:201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carson RL (1951) The sea around us. Chapter 6, “The long snowfall”. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Chanton J, Zhao T, Rosenheim BE, Joye S, Bosman S, Brunner C, Yeager KM, Diercks AR, Hollander D (2015) Using natural abundance radiocarbon to trace the flux of petrocarbon to the seafloor following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Sci Technol 49:847–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chanton JP, Cherrier J, Wilson RM, Sarkodee-Adoo J, Bosman S, Mickle A, Graham WM (2012) Radiocarbon evidence that carbon from the Deepwater Horizon spill entered the planktonic food web of the Gulf of Mexico. Environ Res Lett 7:045303.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chin WC, Orellana MV, Verdugo P (1998) Spontaneous assembly of marine dissolved organic matter into polymer gels. Nature 391:568–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Daling PS, Leirvik F, Almås IK, Brandvik PJ, Hansen BH, Lewis A, Reed M (2014) Surface weathering and dispersibility of MC252 crude oil. Mar Pollut Bull 87:300–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Daly KL, Passow U, Chanton J, Hollander D (2016) Assessing the impacts of oil-associated marine snow formation and sedimentation during and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Anthropocene 13:18–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ancene.2016.01.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De La Rocha CL, Passow U (2014) The biological pump. In: Turekian KK, Holland HD (eds) Treatise on Geochemistry, vol 8. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  35. De La Rocha C, Passow U (2007) Factors influencing the sinking of POC and the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Deep Sea Res II 54:639–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diercks A-R, Dike C, Passow U, Ziervogel K, DiMarco SF, Asper VL (2018) Scales of seafloor sediment resuspension in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Elementa Sci Anthrop 6:32.  https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diercks AR, Highsmith RC, Asper VL, Joung D, Zhou Z, Guo L, Shiller AM, Joye SB, Teske AP, Guinasso N, Wade TL, Lohrenz SE (2010) Characterization of subsurface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Deepwater Horizon site. Geophys Res Lett 37:L20602.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dilling L, Alldredge AL (2000) Fragmentation of marine snow by swimming macrozooplankton: a new process impacting carbon cycling in the sea. Deep-Sea Res I 47:1227–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Discart V, Bilad M, Vankelecom IF (2015) Critical evaluation of the determination methods for transparent exopolymer particles, agents of membrane fouling. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 45:167–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dissanayake AL, Burd AB, Daly KL, Francis S, Passow U (2018) Numerical modeling of the interaction of oil, marine snow, and riverine sediments in the ocean. J Geophys Res Oceans 123:5388.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC013790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dombrowski N, Donaho JA, Gutierrez T, Seitz KW, Teske AP, Baker BJ (2016) Reconstructing metabolic pathways of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Nat Microbiol 1:16057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Doyle SM, Whitaker EA, De Pascuale V, Wade TL, Knap AH, Santschi PH, Quigg A, Sylvan JB (2018) Rapid formation of microbe-oil aggregates and changes in community composition in coastal surface water following exposure to oil and Corexit. Front Microbiol 9:689.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Elimelech M, Gregory J, Jia X, Williams RA (1995) Particle deposition and aggregation: measurement, modelling and simulation. Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, MAGoogle Scholar
  44. Engel A (2000) The role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the increase in apparent particle stickiness (α) during the decline of a diatom bloom. J Plankton Res 22:485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Févre JL (1979) On the hypothesis of a relationship between dinoflagellate blooms and the ‘Amoco Cadiz’ oil spill. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 59:525–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Finkel ZV, Beardall J, Flynn KJ, Quigg A, Rees TAK, Raven JA (2010) Phytoplankton in a changing world: cell size and elemental stoichiometry. J Plankton Res 32:119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fitzpatrick FA, Boufadel MC, Johnson R, Lee KW, Graan TP, Bejarano AC, Zhu Z, Waterman D, Capone DM, Hayter E, Hamilton SK (2015) Oil-particle interactions and submergence from crude oil spills in marine and freshwater environments: review of the science and future research needs (No. 2015–1076). US Geological SurveyGoogle Scholar
  48. Francis S, Burd AB, Daly KL, Passow U (2017) An aggregation model to estimate oil removal rate by sinking marine snow: a decision support tool. Gulf of Mexico oil spill and ecosystem science conference, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
  49. Friedlander SK (2000) Smoke, dust, and haze: fundamentals of aerosol dynamics, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  50. Gong Y, Zhao X, Cai Z, O’Reilly SE, Hao X, Zhao D (2014) A review of oil, dispersed oil and sediment interactions in the aquatic environment: influence on the fate, transport and remediation of oil spills. Mar Pollut Bull 79:16–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Graham WM, Condon RH, Carmichael RH, D’Ambra I, Patterson HK, Linn LJ, Hernandez FJ Jr (2010) Oil carbon entered the coastal planktonic food web during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Res Lett 5:045301.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/5/4/045301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grossart HP, Simon M (1993) Limnetic macroscopic organic aggregates (lake snow): occurrence, characteristics, and microbial dynamics in lake constance. Limnol Oceanogr 38:532–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gustitus SA, Clement TP (2017) Formation, fate, and impacts of microscopic and macroscopic oil-sediment residues in nearshore marine environments: a critical review. Rev Geophys 55(4):1130–1157.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017RG000572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gutierrez T, Singleton DR, Berry D, Yang T, Aitken MD, Teske A (2013a) Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria enriched by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill identified by cultivation and DNA-SIP. ISME J 7:2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gutierrez T, Berry D, Yang T, Mishamandani S, McKay L, Teske A, Aitken M (2013b) Role of bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) in the fate of the oil released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. PLoS One 8:e67717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hastings DW, Schwing PT, Brooks GR, Larson RA, Morford JL, Roeder T, Quinn KA, Bartlett T, Romero IC, Hollander DJ (2015) Changes in sedimentary redox conditions following the BP DwH blowout event. Deep-Sea Res II 129:167–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.12.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hazen TC, Dubinsky EA, DeSantis TZ, Andersen GL, Piceno YM, Singh N, Jansson JK, Probst A, Borglin SE, Fortney JL, Stringfellow WT, Bill M, Conrad MS, Tom LM, Chavarria KL, Alusi TR, Lamendella R, Joyner DC, Spier C, Baelum J, Auer M, Zemla ML, Chakraborty R, Sonnenthal EL, D’Haeseleer P, Holman H-YN, Osman S, Lu Z, Van Nostrand JD, Deng Y, Zhou J, Mason OU (2010) Deep-sea oil plume enriches indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Science 330:204–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hu C, Weisberg RH, Liu Y, Zheng L, Daly KL, English DC, Zhao J, Vargo GA (2011) Did the northeastern Gulf of Mexico become greener after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill? Geophys Res Lett 38:L09601.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jackson GA (1990) A model of the formation of marine algal flocs by physical coagulation processes. Deep-Sea Res 37:1197–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jackson GA (1998) Using fractal scaling and two-dimensional particle size spectra to calculate coagulation rates for heterogeneous systems. J Colloid Interface Sci 202:20–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jernelöv A, Lindén O (1981) Ixtoc I: a case study of the world’s largest oil spill. Ambio 10:299–306Google Scholar
  62. Jézéquel R, Receveur J, Nedwed T, Le Floch S (2018) Evaluation of the ability of calcite, bentonite and barite to enhance oil dispersion under arctic conditions. Mar Pollut Bull 127:626–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Johansson S, Larsson U, Boehm P (1980) The Tsesis oil spill impact on the pelagic ecosystem. Mar Pollut Bull 11:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jokulsdottir T, Archer D (2016) A stochastic, Lagrangian model of sinking biogenic aggregates in the ocean (SLAMS 1.0): model formulation, validation and sensitivity. Geosci Model Dev 9:1455–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Joye SB, Teske AP, Kostka JE (2014) Microbial dynamics following the Macondo oil well blowout across Gulf of Mexico environments. Bioscience 64:766–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Khelifa A, Fingas M, Brown C (2008a) Effects of dispersants on Oil-SPM aggregation and fate in US coastal waters. Report submitted to the Coastal Response Research Center, University of New Hampshire, July 2008, Project Number: 06-090, 57ppGoogle Scholar
  67. Khelifa A, Fieldhouse B, Wang Z, Yang C, Landriault M, Brown CE, Fingas M (2008b) Effects of chemical dispersant on oil sedimentation due to oil-SPM flocculation: experiments with the NIST-1941b standard reference material. Proc IOSC 2008:627–631Google Scholar
  68. Kleindienst S, Paul JH, Joye SB (2015) Using dispersants after oil spills: impacts on the composition and activity of microbial communities. Nat Rev Microbiol 13:388–396.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kranck K (1973) Flocculation of suspended sediment in the sea. Nature 246:348–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lambert RA, Variano EA (2016) Collision of oil droplets with marine aggregates: effect of droplet size. J Geophys Res Oceans 121:3250–3260.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JC011562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Laurenceau-Cornec EC, Trull TW, Davies DM, De La Rocha CL, Blain S (2015) Phytoplankton morphology controls on marine snow sinking velocity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 520:35–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lee K, Zheng Y, Merlin FX, Li Z, Niu H, King T, Doane R (2012a) Combining mineral fines with chemical dispersants to disperse oil in low temperature and low mixing environments, including the Arctic Rep. US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)Google Scholar
  73. Lee RF, Köster M, Paffenhöfer GA (2012b) Ingestion and defecation of dispersed oil droplets by pelagic tunicates. J Plankton Res 34:1058–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee K, Li Z, Robinson B, Kepkay PE, Blouin M, Doyon B (2011) Oil spill countermeasures in the Arctic. Proceedings of the International Conference on Oil Spill Risk Management: preparedness, Response and Contingency Planning in the Shipping and Offshore Industries. 7–9 March, Malmo Borshus, Sweden, Neil Bellefontaine and Olaf Linden (eds.), WMU Publications, pp 93–108Google Scholar
  75. Lee K, Li Z, King T, Kepkay P, Boufadel M, Venosa A, Mullin J (2008) Effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on partitioning of petroleum hydrocarbons in natural seawater. Proceedings of the 2008 International Oil Spill Conference, Savannah, Georgia, USA, May 4–8, 2008, pp 633–638.  https://doi.org/10.7901/2169-3358-2008-1-633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lee K, Stoffyn-Egli P, Tremblay GH, Owens EH, Sergy GA, Guénette CC, Prince RC (2003a) Oil-mineral aggregate formation on oiled beaches: natural attenuation and sediment relocation. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lee K, Wohlgeschaffen G, Tremblay GH, Johnson BT, Sergy GA, Prince RC, Guénette CC, Owens EH (2003b) Toxicity evaluation with the Microtox test to assess the impact of in-situ oiled shoreline treatment options: natural attenuation and sediment relocation. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lee K, Stoffyn-Egli P, Wood P, Lunel T (1998) Formation and structure of oil-mineral fine aggregates in coastal environments. Proceedings 21st Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar. June 10–12, 1998, Edmonton, Alberta, pp 911–921Google Scholar
  79. Lee K, Lunel T, Wood P, Swannell R, Stoffyn-Egli P (1997) Shoreline cleanup by acceleration of clay-oil flocculation processes. In International oil spill conference (1997, No. 1, pp 235–240). American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lee K, Wong CS, Cretney WJ, Whitney FA, Parsons TR, Lalli C, Wu J (1985) Microbial response to crude oil and Corexit 9527: SEAFLUXES enclosure study. Microb Ecol 11:337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee RF, Gardner WS, Anderson JW, Blaylock JW, Barwell-Clarke J (1978) Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in controlled ecosystem enclosures. Environ Sci Technol 12:832–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lee RF, Anderson JW (1977) Fate and effect of naphthalenes: controlled ecosystem pollution experiment. Bull Mar Sci 27:127–134Google Scholar
  83. Le Floch S, Guyomarch J, Merlin FX, Stoffyn-Egli P, Dixon J, Lee K (2002) The influence of salinity on oil–mineral aggregate formation. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Levine S, Bowen BD, Partridge SJ (1989) Stabilization of emulsions by fine particles II. capillary and van der Waals forces between particles. Colloids Surf 38:345–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Li Z, Lee K, King KT, Boufadel M, Venosa AD (2008) Assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness in a wave tank under regular non-breaking and breaking wave conditions. Mar Pollut Bull 56:903–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Logan BE, Passow U, Alldredge AL, Grossart H-P, Simon M (1995) Rapid formation and sedimentation of large aggregates is predictable from coagulation rates (half-lives) of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). Deep-Sea Res II 42:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Logan BE, Alldredge AL (1989) Potential for increased nutrient uptake by flocculating diatoms. Mar Biol 101:443–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Loh A, Shim WJ, Ha SY, Yim UH (2014) Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates: formation mechanism and fate in the marine environment. OSJ 49:329–341Google Scholar
  89. Lunel T, Lee K, Swannell R, Wood P, Rusin J, Bailey N, Halliwell C, Davies L, Sommerville M, Dobie A, Mitchell D, McDonagh M (1996) Shoreline clean up during the Sea Empress Incident: the role of surf washing (clay- M. oil flocculation), dispersants and bioremediation. Proceedings of the 19th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar, June 12–14, 1996, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, pp 1521–1540Google Scholar
  90. Ma X, Cogswell A, Li Z, Lee K (2008) Particle size analysis of dispersed oil and oil-mineral aggregates with an automated epifluorescence microscopy system. Environ Technol 29:739–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mari XS, Passow U, Migon C, Burd AB, Legendre L (2017) Transparent exopolymer particles: effects on carbon cycling in the ocean. Prog Oceanogr 151:13–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mason OU, Scott NM, Gonzalez A, Robbins-Pianka A, Baelum J, Kimbrel J, Bouskill NJ, Prestat E, Borglin S, Joyner DC, Fortney JL, Jurelevicius D, Stringfellow WT, Alvarez-Cohen L, Hazen TC, Knight R, Gilbert JA, Jansson JK (2014) Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Int Soc Microbiol/Ecol J 8:1464–1475Google Scholar
  93. McGenity T, Folwell B, McKew B, Sanni G (2012) Marine crude-oil biodegradation: a central role for interspecies interactions. Aquat Biosyst 16:10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-9063-8-10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Menon VB, Nagarajan R, Wasan DT (1987) Separation of fine particles from non-aqueous media: free energy analysis and oil loss estimation. Sep Sci Technol 22:2295–2322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mitra S, Kimmel DG, Snyder J, Scalise K, McGlaughon BD, Roman MR, Jahn GL, Pierson JJ, Brandt SB, Montoya JP, Rosenbauer RJ, Lorenson TD, Wong FL, Campbell PL (2012) Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Geophys Res Lett 39:L01605.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Montagna PA, Baguley JG, Cooksey C, Hartwell I, Hyde LJ, Hyland JL, Kalke RD, Kracker LM, Reuscher M, Rhodes ACE (2013) Deep-sea benthic footprint of the Deepwater Horizon blowout. PLoS One 8(8):e70540.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nishizawa S, Fukuda M, Inoue N (1954) Photographic study of suspended matter and plankton in the sea. Bull Fac Fish, Hokkaido Univ 5:36–40Google Scholar
  98. Niu H, Lee K (2013) Study the transport of oil-mineral-aggregates (OMAs) in marine environment and assessment of their potential risks to benthic organisms. Int J Environ Pollut 52:32–51.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEP.2013.056356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. O’Connor BS, Muller-Karger FE, Nero RW, Hu C, Peebles EB (2016) The role of Mississippi River discharge in offshore phytoplankton blooming in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico during August 2010. Remote Sens Environ 173:133–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Omotoso OE, Munoz VA, Mikula RJ (2002) Mechanisms of crude oil–mineral interactions. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. OSAT (2010) Summary report for sub-sea and sub-surface oil and dispersant detection: sampling and monitoring, Operational Science Advisory Team (OSAT) US. Department of Homeland Security, New Orleans, LA, pp 131Google Scholar
  102. Owens EH, Lee K (2003) Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment. Mar Pollut Bull 47:397–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Passow U, Sweet J, Francis S, Xu C, Dissanayake AL, Lin J, Santschi PH, Quigg A (2019) Incorporation of oil into diatom aggregates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 612:65–86.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Passow U, Sweet J, Quigg A (2017) How the dispersant Corexit impacts the formation of sinking marine oil snow. Mar Pollut Bull 125:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Passow U, Hetland R (2016) What happened to all of the oil? Oceanography 29:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Passow U, Ziervogel K (2016) Marine snow sedimented oil released during the Deepwater Horizon spill. Oceanography 29:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Passow U (2016) Formation of rapidly-sinking, oil-associated marine snow. Deep-Sea Res II 129:232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.10.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Passow U, Ziervogel K, Asper V, Dierks A (2012) Marine snow formation in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Environ Res Lett 7:11.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/035301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Passow U (2002) Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in aquatic environments. Prog Oceanogr 55:287–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Passow U, Alldredge AL (1995) Aggregation of a diatom bloom in a mesocosm: the role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). Deep-Sea Res II 42:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Passow U, Alldredge AL (1994) Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 113:185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Passow U, Alldredge AL, Logan BE (1994) The role of particulate carbohydrate exudates in the flocculation of diatom blooms. Deep-Sea Res Oceanogr Abstr 41:335–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Patton JS, Rigler MW, Boehm PD, Fiest DL (1981) Ixtoc I oil spill: flaking of surface mousse in the Gulf of Mexico. Nature 290:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Payne JR, Clayton JR, Kirstein BE (2003) Oil/suspended particulate material interactions and sedimentation. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:201–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pernice MC, Irene Forn I, Gomes A, Lara E, Alonso-Sáez L, Arrieta JM, del Carmen GF, Hernando-Morales V, Mackenzie R, Mestre M, Sintes E, Teira E, Valencia J, Varela MM, Vaqué D, Duarte CM, Gasol JM, Massana R (2015) Global distribution of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean. ISME J 9:782–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ploug H, Iversen MH, Fischer G (2008) Ballast, sinking velocity and apparent diffusivity within marine snow and fecal pellets: implications and substrate turnover by attached bacteria. Limnol Oceanogr 53:1878–1886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Pruppacher HR, Klett JD (2010) Microphysics of clouds and precipitation, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Quigg A, Passow U, Chin W-C, Xu C, Doyle S, Bretherton L, Kamalanathan M, Williams AK, Sylvan JB, Finkel ZV, Knap AH, Schwehr KA, Zhang S, Sun L, Wade TL, Obeid W, Hatcher PG, Santschi PH (2016) The role of microbial exopolymers in determining the fate of oil and chemical dispersants in the ocean. Limnol Oceanogr Lett 1:3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Quigg A, Irwin AJ, Finkel ZV (2011) Evolutionary imprint of endosymbiosis of elemental stoichiometry: testing inheritance hypotheses. Proc R Soc: Biol Sci 278:526–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Quigg A, Finkel ZV, Irwin AJ, Reinfelder JR, Rosenthal Y, Ho T-Y, Schofield O, Morel FMM, Falkowski PG (2003) The evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in marine phytoplankton. Nature 425:291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Remsen A, Daly K, Kramer K (2015) Plankton and particle response during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: observations from the SIPPER imaging system. NOAA NRDA ReportGoogle Scholar
  122. Reuscher MG, Baguley JG, Conrad-Forrest N, Cooksey C, Hyland JL, Lewis C, Montagna PA, Ricker RW, Rohal M, Washburn T (2017) Temporal patterns of the Deepwater Horizon impacts on the benthic infauna of the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope. PLoS One 12(6):e0179923.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journalpone.0179923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Riley GA (1963) Organic aggregates in seawater and the dynamics of their formation and utilization. Limnol Oceanogr 8:372–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Romero IC, Toro-Farmer G, Diercks A-R, Schwing P, Muller-Karger F, Murawski S, Hollander DJ (2017) Large-scale deposition of weathered oil in the Gulf of Mexico following a deep-water oil spill. Environ Pollut 228:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Romero IC, Schwing PT, Brooks GR, Larson RA, Hastings DW, Ellis G, Goddard EA, Hollander DJ (2015) Hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. PLoS One 10(5):e0128371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Salazar G, Cornejo-Castillo FM, Borrull E, Díez-Vives C, Lara E, Vaqué D, Arrieta JM, Duarte CM, Gasol JM, Acinas SG (2015) Particle-association lifestyle is a phylogenetically conserved trait in bathypelagic prokaryotes. Mol Ecol 24:5692–5706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schwing PT, O’Malley BJ, Hollander DJ (2018) Resilience of Benthic Foraminifera in the Northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon event (2011–2015). Ecol Indic 84:753–764.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.09.044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Schwing PT, Brooks GR, Larson RA, Holmes CW, O’Malley BJ, Hollander DJ (2017) Constraining the spatial extent of the Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Accumulation (MOSSFA) following the DWH event using a 210Pbxs inventory approach. Environ Sci Technol 51:5962–5968.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b00450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Schwing PT, Romero IC, Brooks GR, Hastings DW, Larson RA, Hollander DJ (2015) A decline in Deep-Sea benthic foraminifera following the Deepwater Horizon event in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. PLOSone 10(3):e0120565.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Silver M (2015) Marine snow: a brief historical sketch. Limnol Oceanogr Bull 24:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Silver MW, Gowing MM (1991) The “particle” flux: origins and biological components. Prog Oceanogr 26:75–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Silver MW, Shanks AL, Trent JD (1978) Marine snow: microplankton habitat and source of small-scale patchiness in pelagic populations. Science 201:371–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sterling MC, Bonner JS, Ernest ANS, Page CA, Autenrieth RL (2005) Application of fractal flocculation and vertical transport model to aquatic sol– sediment systems. Water Res 39:1818–1830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sterling MC, Bonner JS, Ernest AN, Page CA, Autenrieth RL (2004) Characterizing aquatic sediment–oil aggregates using in situ instruments. Mar Pollut Bull 48:533–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stoffyn-Egli P, Lee K (2003) Formation and characterization of oil-mineral aggregates. Spill Sci Technol Bull 8:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stout SA, Payne JR (2016a) Macondo oil in deep-sea sediments: part 1 – sub-sea weathering of oil deposited on the seafloor. Mar Pollut Bull 108:365–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stout SA, Payne JR (2016b) Chemical composition of floating and sunken in-situ burn residues from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Mar Pollut Bull 111:186–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stout SA, German CR (2015) Characterization and Flux of Marine Oil Snow in the Viosca Knoll (Lophelia Reef) Area Due to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Newfields, Rockland MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  139. Suja LD, Summers S, Gutierrez T (2017) Role of EPS, dispersant and nutrients on the microbial response and MOS formation in the subarctic Northeast Atlantic. Front Microbiol 8:676.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sun J, Khelifa A, Zhao C, Zhao D, Wang Z (2014) Laboratory investigation of oil–suspended particulate matter aggregation under different mixing conditions. Sci Total Environ 473:742–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sun J, Zhao D, Zhao C, Liu F, Zheng X (2013) Investigation of the kinetics of oil–suspended particulate matter aggregation. Mar Pollut Bull 76:250–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.08.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sun J, Khelifa A, Zheng X, Wang Z, So LL, Wong S, Yang C, Fieldhouse B (2010) A laboratory study on the kinetics of the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregates using the NIST-1941b sediment. Mar Pollut Bull 60:1701–1707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sun J, Zheng XL (2009) A review of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation natural process of cleansing spilled oil in the aquatic environment. J Environ Monit 11:1801–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Teal JM, Howarth RW (1984) Oil spill studies: a review of ecological effects. Environ Manag 8:27–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tsujita T (1953) A preliminary study on naturally occurring suspended organic matter in waters adjacent to Japan. (in Japanese, with a summary in English). J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 8:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Valentine DL, Fisher GB, Bagby SC, Nelson RK, Reddy CM, Sylva SP, Woo MA (2014) Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:15906–15911.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1414873111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Verdugo P, Alldredge AL, Azam F, Kirchman DL, Passow U, Santschi PH (2004) The oceanic gel phase: a bridge in the DOM–POM continuum. Mar Chem 92:67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Volk T, Hoffert MI (1985) Ocean carbon pumps: analysis of relative strengths and efficiencies in ocean-driven atmospheric CO2 changes. In: Sundquist ET, Broecker WS (eds) The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO: natural variations archean to present. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 99–110Google Scholar
  149. Volkman JK, Tanoue E (2002) Chemical and biological studies of particulate organic matter in the ocean. J Oceanogr 58:265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Vonk SM, Hollander DJ, Murk ATJ (2015) Was the extreme and wide-spread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique? Mar Pollut Bull 100:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wang W, Zheng Y, Lee K (2013) Chemical dispersion of oil with mineral fines in a low temperature environment. Mar Pollut Bull 72:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wang W, Zheng Y, Li Z, Lee K (2011) PIV investigation of oil–mineral interaction for an oil spill application. Chem Eng J 170:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Washburn TW, Reuscher MG, Montagna PA, Cooksey C, Hyland JL (2017) Macrobenthic community structure in the deep Gulf of Mexico one year after the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Deep Sea Res Part 1 Oceanogr Res Pap 127:21–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2017.06.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Weise AM, Nalewajko C, Lee K (1999) Oil-mineral fine interactions facilitate oil biodegradation in seawater. Environ Technol 20:811–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wincele DE, Wrenn BA, Venosa AD (2004) Sedimentation of oil-mineral aggregates for remediation of vegetable oil spills. J Environ Eng 130:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wirth M, Passow U, Jeschek J, Hand I, Schulz-Bull DE (2018) Partitioning of oil compounds into marine oil snow: insights into prevailing mechanisms and dispersant effects. Marine Chemistry 206:62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2018.09.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wood PA, Lunel T, Daniel F, Swannell R, Lee K, Stoffyn-Egli P (1998) Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction. In: Artic and marine oil spill program technical seminar. Ministry of Supply and Services, Canada, pp 51–78Google Scholar
  158. Xavier M, Passow U, Migon C, Burd AB, Legendre L (2017) Transparent exopolymer particles: effects on carbon cycling in the ocean. Prog Oceanogr 151:13–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Yan B, Passow U, Chanton J, Nöthig E-M, Asper V, Sweet J, Pitiranggon M, Diercks A, Pak D (2016) Sustained deposition of contaminants from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A:E3332–E3340.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1513156113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Yang T, Nigro LM, Gutierrez T, D’ambrosio L, Joye SB, Highsmith R, Teske A (2016a) Pulsed blooms and persistent oil-degrading bacterial populations in the water column during and after the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Deep-Sea Res II Top Stud Oceanogr 129:282–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Yang T, Speare K, McKay L, MacGregor BJ, Joye SB, Teske A (2016b) Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout. Front Microbiol 7:1384.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01384. eCollection 2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zetsche E-M, Ploug H (2015) Particles in aquatic environments: from invisible exopolymers to sinking aggregates. Mar Chem 175:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zhang H, Khatibi M, Zheng Y, Lee K, Li Z, Mullin JV (2010) Investigation of OMA formation and the effect of minerals. Mar Pollut Bull 60:1433–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Zhao L, Boufadel MC, Katz J, Haspel G, Lee K, King T, Robison B (2017) A new mechanism of sediment attachment to oil in turbulent flows: projectile particles. Environ Sci Technol 51:11020–11028.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zhao L, Boufadel MC, Geng X, Lee K, King T, Robinson B, Fitzpatrick F (2016) A-DROP: a predictive model for the formation of oil particle aggregates (OPA). Mar Pollut Bull 106:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Zhao L, Torlapati J, Boufadel MC, King T, Robinson B, Lee K (2014) VDROP: a comprehensive model for droplet formation of oils and gases in liquids-Incorporation of the interfacial tension and droplet viscosity. Chem Eng J 253:93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ziervogel K, Joye SB, Arnosti C (2016) Microbial enzymatic activity and secondary production in sediments affected by the sedimentation pulse following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Deep-Sea Res II Top Stud Oceanogr 129:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Ziervogel K, Joye SB, Arnosti C (2014) Microbial enzymatic activity and secondary production in sediments affected by the sedimentation event of oily-particulate matter from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Deep-Sea Res II Top Stud Oceanogr 129:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonietta Quigg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Uta Passow
    • 2
  • Kendra L. Daly
    • 3
  • Adrian Burd
    • 4
  • David J. Hollander
    • 3
  • Patrick T. Schwing
    • 3
  • Kenneth Lee
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Marine BiologyTexas A&M University at GalvestonGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Memorial University, Ocean Sciences CentreLogy BayCanada
  3. 3.University of South Florida, College of Marine ScienceSt. PetersburgUSA
  4. 4.Department of Marine SciencesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  5. 5.Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ecosystem Science DirectorateOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations