Video Games and Attitude Change – Can We Reliably Measure This? The Challenges of Empirical Study Design
The aim of this paper is to address methodologically the challenges that arise when measuring attitude changes toward video game content. Drawing on findings from two pilot studies (N = 18, 25) and field notes from an ongoing empirical study (N = 140), we have identified three key challenges: reliability of measurement of attitudes, standardization of game experience for each participant, and measurement of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics. In this paper, we outline our research design that tried to address these challenges. In particular, we propose modifying the game, used as a research tool, to maintain player agency while ensuring all players engage with the measured phenomena. We also recommend using the concept of attitude strength in order to measure effectively attitudes toward socially sensitive topics. Overall, this paper provides preliminary insight into research on video games and attitude change within the field of digital game-based learning.
KeywordsAttitude change Czechoslovakia 38–89: Borderlands Explicit and implicit attitudes Serious game Representation of history
This study was supported by the project PRIMUS/HUM/03 at Charles University and by the project FF/VG/2017/115 of the Faculty of Arts at Charles University. Vít Šisler’s work was further supported by the European Regional Development Fund Project, “Creativity and Adaptability as Conditions for the Success of Europe in an Interrelated World” (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000734) and the Charles University Program, Progress Q15.
- 1.Farber, M., Schrier, K.: The limits and strengths of using digital games as empathy machines. MGIEP Working Paper 5, 1–35 (2017)Google Scholar
- 5.Tedeschi, J.T.: Impression Management Theory and Social Psychological Research, 1st edn. Academic Press, Michigan (1981)Google Scholar
- 10.Schwarz, N., Bohner, G.: The construction of attitudes. In: Tesser, A., Schwarz, N. (eds.) Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology, pp. 436–457. Blackwell, Oxford (2001)Google Scholar
- 11.Banaji, R.B., Greenwald, A.G.: Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People, 1st edn. Delacorte Press, New York (2013)Google Scholar
- 12.Kolek, L., Šisler, V.: Representation of history in computer games and attitude change: empirical study design. In: Pivec, M., Grundler, J. (eds.) CONFERENCE 2017, ECGBL, vol. 11, pp. 829–834. Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, Reading (2017)Google Scholar
- 13.Petty, R.E., Krosnick, J.A.: Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, 1st edn. Psychology Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
- 14.Rudowski, M.: The Trader of Stories. http://traderofstories.blogspot.com. Accessed 15 Aug 2018