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Part of the book series: Key Challenges in Geography ((KCHGE))

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Abstract

The nexus between political-economy, development and discourses, bottom-up people’s needs and power of institutions such as the World Bank and IMF all comes into play here in the geopolitical analyses. Based on historical experiences and Utopian ideals, concepts regarding development are codified in the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The quest of assuring human needs entails elimination of hunger and poverty, and guaranteeing good health services and well-being, along with quality education and gender equality, clean water and sanitation, affordable clean energy, decent work and economic growth, with industry, innovation and infrastructure, and reducing inequalities, as well as creation of sustainable cities and communities. Along with this is the issue of responsible consumption and production, with action taken on climate change, policies and use of water and land environments. Central to this is peace, justice and strong institutions, with durable partnerships to implement sustainability. Basically, it can be argued that any action that does not alleviate poverty in some way cannot be called development but defining poverty has to be addressed in specific contexts. Conflicts remain the biggest threat to development and hence a human rights approach is imperative. Key development ideas must be linked to wider conceptual frameworks of globalisation and glocalization, and democratisation processes. Economic institutions such as the IMF and World Bank, WTO and economic governance all form part of the development interconnection.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The goals are found in paragraph 54 UN Resolution A/RES/70/1 of 25 September 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_70_1_E.pdf

    To read more see: Sumner and Tribe (2008), Willis (2005), Chari and Corbridge (2008a), Kothari (2005), Kothari an Minogue (2002), Payne (2005), Rapley (1996), Schuurman (1996).

    Chari and Corbridge (2008b). The Development Reader brings together fifty-four key readings on development history, theory and policy: Adam Smith and Karl Marx meet, among others, Robert Wade, Amartya Sen and Jeffrey Sachs. It shows how debates around development have been structured by different readings of the roles played by markets, empire, nature and difference in the organization of world affairs.

  2. 2.

    World Happiness Report. http://worldhappiness.report.

    See Mariano Rojas FLACSO-México and UPAEP. POVERTY AND PEOPLE’S WELL-BEING. http://econ.biu.ac.il/files/economics/seminars/2014_poverty_and_peoples_well-being_-_final.pdf.

  3. 3.

    2015 UN Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/42809.

  4. 4.

    UN SDGs 2015. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/.

  5. 5.

    To read more: http://www.undp.org/mdg/basics.shtml.

    http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/reports.shtml.

    http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/newsletter/2011/january/trends.shtml.

    http://search.worldbank.org/all?qterm=MDGs.

  6. 6.

    UN The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf.

  7. 7.

    UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf

    World Food and Hunger—https://www.globalpolicy.org/world-hunger.html.

  8. 8.

    UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf.

    For education and human development, see Paulo Frere, http://infed.org/mobi/paulo-freire-dialogue-praxis-and-education/.

  9. 9.

    See: Rapid education responses in complex humanitarian emergencies. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED431675.

    UNICEF, https://www.unicef.org/rosa/Rosa-Education_in_Emergencies_ToolKit.pdf.

    Protecting the right to education for refugees; Working papers on education policy; Vol.: 4; 2017. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002510/251076E.pdf.

    Jusoor Refugee Program. https://jusoorsyria.com/programs/refugee-education-program/.

    Euronews—Learning World: http://www.euronews.com/2015/06/25/learning-to-cope-the-impact-of-syria-s-war-on-lost-generation/.

  10. 10.

    UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf.

  11. 11.

    UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf.

  12. 12.

    UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf.

  13. 13.

    UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf.

  14. 14.

    UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf.

  15. 15.

    For further reading on refugees and children and education see: UNESCO. Missing out: Refugee Education in Crisis. http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/missing-out-refugee-education-in-crisis_unhcr_2016-en.pdf. Also https://en.unesco.org/news/refugee-children-are-five-times-more-likely-be-out-school-others http://www.unhcr.org/afr/news/press/2016/9/57d7d6f34/unhcr-reports-crisis-refugee-education.html.

  16. 16.

    See: The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015, for executive summary, see pages 5–9. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf.

  17. 17.

    George Alleyne, Robert Beaglehole, Ruth Bonita Quantifying targets for the SDG health goal. The Lancet. Volume 385, No. 9964, pp. 208–209, 17 January 2015. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)61655-X/abstract.

    Martin Sandbu 15 September 2015. UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20Summary%20web_english.pdf.

  18. 18.

    Briant Carant (2017).

  19. 19.

    Hickel (2016).

  20. 20.

    See: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ and http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/human-rights-basics.

  21. 21.

    See: http://www.unifem.org.in/PDF/RBA%20Primer%20.pdf and http://www.righttowater.info/code/HR_approach.asp and http://www.undg.org/?P=221.

  22. 22.

    What is Development Geography? What does Development Geography mean? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkP6ByVnNKo.

  23. 23.

    What is poverty? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5qig9HIJ7k.

    Why some countries are rich and others poor. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-4V3HR696k.

  24. 24.

    Francis Fukuyama, What is Development? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG3G56YdFeE.

  25. 25.

    What’s the difference between Neoliberalism and Liberalism? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIucLfIXR6Y.

  26. 26.

    Fukuyama. F. 1989. The End of History?

  27. 27.

    The Concise Encyclopaedia of Economics. Joseph E. Stigler. http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Stiglitz.html.

    Hudson, Michael; Feder, Kris; and Miller, George James (1994). A Philosophy for a Fair Society. Shepheard-Walwyn, London.

  28. 28.

    Thomas Spence. British pamphleteer. written by: the editors of encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Thomas-Spence.

  29. 29.

    Chambers (1997, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2010), Narayan et al. (1999), Allen and Thomas (2000).

  30. 30.

    YouTube: World Hunger Documentary, UWFH Stenden. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=veF5bJO3RL0.

  31. 31.

    YouTube: T. Robert Malthus: The Principle of Population Explained. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wLK3OobspM.

    YouTube: Population, Sustainability, and Malthus: Crash Course World History 215. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QAkW_i0bDpQ.

  32. 32.

    YouTube: Ideas of Entitlements as proposed by Amartya Sen. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7xqMP9WUFU.

    Sen (1981), Allen and Thomas (2000).

  33. 33.

    See: https://www.globalpolicy.org/world-hunger.html.

  34. 34.

    Documentary: People’s Century Part 17 1954 Living Longer. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92Xh8wT2I9U&list=PLuL26fXZ8eTNLLnugg2BTyOZQ7HT-QZk4&index=17.

  35. 35.

    YouTube: Overview of theories of development | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMv8A9qg6jY.

  36. 36.

    YouTube: The Division of Labour. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=row3qYD7jL4.

  37. 37.

    Gender and Development. Wiki gender. http://www.wikigender.org/wiki/gender-and-development/.

    Rethinking development in the 21st century—Vandana Shiva at the Governance Innovation Week 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtuoi8Btkqk.

    Allen and Thomas (2000).

  38. 38.

    IMF (2018).

  39. 39.

    The Economist, 20 Sep. 2018. America and China are in a proper trade war. Donald Trump announces another wave of tariffs. China retaliates. https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/2018/09/20/america-and-china-are-in-a-proper-trade-war.

    Reuters. Business News. Sep. 18, 2018Susan Heavey, Yawen Chen. China to penalize $60 billion of U.S. imports in tit-for-tat move. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trade-china-response/china-to-penalize-60-billion-of-us-imports-in-tit-for-tat-move-idUSKCN1LY22V.

  40. 40.

    YouTube: Overpopulated—BBC Documentary. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UbmG8gtBPM.

  41. 41.

    Allen and Thomas (2000).

    YouTube: Tracking World Migration | The Economist. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hcoOENLfpUI.

  42. 42.

    Wackernagel, Mathis and Rees, William (1996) “Our Ecological Footprint” (New Society Press).

    Rees (1992), Wackernagel (1994).

    Earth Day Network. https://www.earthday.org/about/.

  43. 43.

    CO2 Emissions. https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/co2-emissions.html.

  44. 44.

    See: https://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results.

  45. 45.

    See: Takshead et al. (2010).

  46. 46.

    European Parliament News. 30-6-17. Europe’s Migration Crisis. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/priorities/20150831TST91035/20170629STO78631/europe-s-migration-crisis.

    Daniel Howden, A tale of two crises in Greece—coping with economic depression and refugees. The Guardian. Thursday 3 December 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/03/greece-islands-economic-depression-migration-kos.

  47. 47.

    UN FAO (2002).

    UN Human Security Unit. HUMAN SECURITY IN THEORY AND PRACTICE. An Overview of the Human Security Concept and the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security. http://www.un.org/humansecurity/sites/www.un.org.humansecurity/files/human_security_in_theory_and_practice_english.pdf.

  48. 48.

    See: http://www.imf.org/external/index.htm.

  49. 49.

    What’s the difference between the IMF and the World Bank? | CNBC Explains. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lN3qrFA4jXc.

    See: http://www.worldbank.org/ and http://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/worldbank.asp#ixzz3j4HumxSI.

  50. 50.

    To read more: https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/whatis_e.htm.

  51. 51.

    To read more: Difference Between G8 and G20 | Difference Between | G8 vs G20 http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/politics/differences-between-g8-and-g20/#ixzz3j4mqFUKZ.

  52. 52.

    What is GLOBAL GOVERNANCE? What does GLOBAL GOVERNANCE mean? GLOBAL GOVERNANCE meaning. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tNOweWgv5kQ.

  53. 53.

    What is STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT? What does STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT mean? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGOBGBA-eHE.

  54. 54.

    World Bank World Development Report. 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2017.

    Constitutional Principles: The Rule of Law. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0MTEm2a7PA.

  55. 55.

    The Development of Underdevelopment in the UK, Colin Leys, SOAS University of London. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3esvnsxdTUY.

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O’Reilly, G. (2019). Development: Ideal and Basics. In: Aligning Geopolitics, Humanitarian Action and Geography in Times of Conflict. Key Challenges in Geography. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11398-8_8

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