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Building the Case for a Home-State Grievance Mechanism: Law Reform Strategies in the Canadian Resource Justice Movement

Part of the Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Rights book series (CHREN,volume 3)

Abstract

The vast majority of mining companies operating globally are Canadian. For nearly two decades, social justice advocates systematically documented the concerns of mine-affected communities in relation to Canadian operations in developing countries, producing a significant body of empirical work that described not only the nature of the social conflicts associated with Canadian companies but also the mechanisms whereby the Canadian government provides companies with political, economic and legal support. Beginning in 2005, activists, policy makers, industry leaders and international human rights bodies participated in a sustained debate over the appropriate Canadian regulatory responses to these issues. This chapter analyses the strategies of law reform advocates between 2000 and 2017 to critique Canadian policy and the overseas conduct of Canadian extractive companies. It gives special attention to the 2016 law reform proposal from Canadian civil society, the draft Business & Human Rights Act. The strategies profiled here are of special interest because they resulted in a significant, if not unexpected, breakthrough in early 2018 when the Canadian government announced a globally unprecedented new grievance mechanism: the Canadian Ombudsperson for Responsible Enterprise. The discussion is of interest to those concerned with law’s potential (and limitations) as an instrument of social justice in the global economy, and particularly for communities affected by foreign resource extraction.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Saunders S, Activists occupy Liberal MP Michael Levitt’s office to protest Canadian mining abuses. Now Magazine, 31 May 2015, https://nowtoronto.com/news/mining-abuse_1/ (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  2. 2.

    Formed in 2005, the Canadian Network for Corporate Accountability (CNCA) brings together 30 environmental, human rights, religious, labor and solidarity groups from across Canada. The CNCA’s mission is to ensure that Canadian mining, oil and gas companies respect human rights and the environment when working abroad. To do this, it advocates for policy and law reform in Canada: Canadian Network for Corporate Accountability, What we do, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/about-us/what-we-do/ (last accessed 1 October 2018); Canadian Network for Corporate Accountability, How we work, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/about-us/how-we-work/ (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  3. 3.

    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  4. 4.

    Section 2 will review the main sources and content of these allegations.

  5. 5.

    Freeman S, The case for – and against – an ombudsperson to resolve mining disputes. Financial Post, 7 March 2017, http://business.financialpost.com/business/the-case-for-and-against-an-ombudsperson-to-resolve-mining-disputes (last accessed 1 October 2018). See for example the terms of the debate on the following recent TV Ontario (TVO) interviews: Paikin S, Toronto: Mining Capital of the World. TVO, 31 May 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6NDn1LqKA3A (last accessed 10 December 2017); Paikin S, Canadian Mining Accountability Abroad. TVO, 31 May 2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oem4r7zLTEY (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  6. 6.

    Las mineras canadienses gestionan mejor los conflictos que otras de propiedad extranjera. Revista ENERGIMINAS, 14 August 2017, http://www.energiminas.com/las-mineras-canadienses-gestionan-mejor-los-conflictos-que-otras-de-propiedad-extranjera/ (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  7. 7.

    This assumption informed Canada’s 2009 CSR Policy which allowed companies to complain to the CSR Counsellor about communities to NGOs: Kamphuis (2012). It was also present in industry rhetoric in key debates over law reform: Seck (2011), p. 73. Most recently, this position appeared in a report issued by the Canadian CSR Counsellor, see Sect. 3.2.

  8. 8.

    Seck (2011, 2012), Simons (2015), Kamphuis (2012) and Coumans (2012).

  9. 9.

    UN Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework. UN Doc HR/PUB/11/04, 2011. The Guiding Principles were endorsed by the Human Rights Council in 2011: UN Human Rights Council, Human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, UN Doc A/HRC/RES/17/4, 6 July 2011, para 1.

  10. 10.

    G Gagnon, A Macklin and P Simons cited in Simons and Macklin (2014). Also see ETOS for human rights beyond borders, Maastricht principles on extraterritorial obligations of states in the area of economic, social and cultural rights. 2013, http://www.etoconsortium.org/en/main-navigation/library/maastricht-principles/ (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 3; UN Human Rights Council, Elaboration of an international legally binding instrument on transnational corporations and other business enterprises with respect to human rights, UN Doc A/HRC/26/L.22/Rev, 25 June 2014, para 1.

  11. 11.

    Simons and Macklin (2014).

  12. 12.

    For 2005 statistics, see Advisory Group Report, National Roundtables on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the Canadian Extractive Industry in Developing Countries. 1 May 2007, http://www.pdac.ca/docs/default-source/priorities/public-affairs/csr-national-roundtables-background.pdf?sfvrsn=720e9e50_12 (last accessed 1 October 2018), pp. 3–4. For 2008 statistics, see Global Affairs Canada, Building the Canadian Advantage: A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategy for the Canadian International Extractive Sector. March 2009, http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/topics-domaines/other-autre/csr-strat-rse-2009.aspx?lang=eng (last accessed 1 October 2018). In 2008, 75% of the world’s exploration and mining companies were headquartered in Canada with an interest in over 100 countries around the world.

  13. 13.

    Kamphuis (2012), p. 1457. Also see UN Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, Statement at the end of visit to Canada by the United Nations Working Group on Business and Human Rights, 1 June 2017, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=21680&LangID=E (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  14. 14.

    Global Affairs Canada, Canada’s Enhanced Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy to Strengthen Canada’s Extractive Sector Abroad – Doing Business the Canadian Way: A Strategy to Advance Corporate Social Responsibility in Canada’s Extractive Sector Abroad. 2014, http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/assets/pdfs/Enhanced_CS_Strategy_ENG.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018); Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Mining Assets: Information Bulletin. December 2014, https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mining-materials/publications/17072 (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  15. 15.

    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Mining Assets: Information Bulletin. December 2014. https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mining-materials/publications/17072 (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  16. 16.

    Marshall B, Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry: F&F 2016. Mining Association of Canada, 2016 http://mining.ca/sites/default/files/documents/Facts-and-Figures-2016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 36.

  17. 17.

    Global Affairs Canada, Building the Canadian Advantage: A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategy for the Canadian International Extractive Sector. March 2009, http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/topics-domaines/other-autre/csr-strat-rse-2009.aspx?lang=eng (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  18. 18.

    Marshall B, Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry: F&F 2016. Mining Association of Canada, 2016 http://mining.ca/sites/default/files/documents/Facts-and-Figures-2016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 81.

  19. 19.

    Canadian Network for Corporate Accountability & Justice & Corporate Accountability Project, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights and Canada’s Extraterritorial Obligations. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Thematic Hearing for 153rd Period of Sessions. 28 October 2014, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/canada_mining_cidh_oct_28_2014_final.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 6.

  20. 20.

    See generally: Hughes et al. (2016) and Barton (1993).

  21. 21.

    Deneault (2015); Natural Resources Canada, Canada’s Positive Investment Climate for Mineral Capital: Information Bulletin. November 2014, https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mining-materials/publications/8782 (last accessed 1 October 2018); Wach T, Jim Flaherty’s corporate tax overhaul made Canada competitive. The Globe and Mail, 20 March 2014, https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/economy/economy-lab/jim-flahertys-corporate-tax-overhaul-made-canada-competitive/article17590384/?ref=http://www.theglobeandmail.com& (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  22. 22.

    Canadian Network for Corporate Accountability & Justice & Corporate Accountability Project, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights and Canada’s Extraterritorial Obligations. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Thematic Hearing for 153rd Period of Sessions. 28 October 2014, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/canada_mining_cidh_oct_28_2014_final.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 6.

  23. 23.

    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Mining Assets: Information Bulletin. December 2014, https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mining-materials/publications/17072 (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  24. 24.

    Canadian Network for Corporate Accountability & Justice & Corporate Accountability Project, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights and Canada’s Extraterritorial Obligations. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Thematic Hearing for 153rd Period of Sessions. 28 October 2014, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/canada_mining_cidh_oct_28_2014_final.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 8; Keenan K and Hamilton K Export Credit Agencies and Human Rights: Failure to Protect. Halifax Initiative, Both Ends, CounterCurrent, Forum Suape and Rios Vivos. 2015, http://77.104.146.242/&aboveground/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Failure-to-Protect.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018); Brown (2012).

  25. 25.

    Mertins-Kirkwood H and A Losing Proposition: The Failure of Canadian ISDS Policy at Home and Abroad. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, August 2015, https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2015/08/Losing_Proposition.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018); Marshall B, Facts and Figures of the Canadian Mining Industry: F&F 2016. Mining Association of Canada, 2016 http://mining.ca/sites/default/files/documents/Facts-and-Figures-2016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 81.

  26. 26.

    Global Affairs Canada, Global Markets Action Plan: The Blueprint for Creating Jobs and Opportunities for Canadians through Trade. 2013, http://international.gc.ca/global-markets-marches-mondiaux/plan.aspx?lang=eng#1b (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  27. 27.

    Canadian Trade Commissioner Service, What we can do for you. 2017, http://tradecommissioner.gc.ca/how-tcs-can-help-comment-sdc-peut-aider.aspx?lang=eng (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  28. 28.

    Global Affairs Canada, Global Markets Action Plan: The Blueprint for Creating Jobs and Opportunities for Canadians through Trade. 2013, http://international.gc.ca/global-markets-marches-mondiaux/plan.aspx?lang=eng#1b (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  29. 29.

    Interestingly, in 2016 the federal government announced a new policy elaborating on Canadian embassies’ commitment to supporting human rights defenders in the countries where they are located. However, this new policy did not modify or change economic diplomacy: Canada, Voices at risk: Canada’s guidelines on supporting human rights defenders. 2016, http://international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/human_rights-droits_homme/rights_defenders_guide_defenseurs_droits.aspx?lang=eng (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  30. 30.

    Simons and Macklin (2014), pp. 1–3, 22–78.

  31. 31.

    House of Commons Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Mining in Developing Countries: Corporate Social Responsibility. 38th Parl, 1st Sess, 14th Rep. 2005, http://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/38-1/FAAE/report-14 (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  32. 32.

    Advisory Group Report, National Roundtables on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the Canadian Extractive Industry in Developing Countries. 1 May 2007, http://www.pdac.ca/docs/default-source/priorities/public-affairs/csr-national-roundtables-background.pdf?sfvrsn=720e9e50_12 (last accessed 1 October 2018), pp. 4–5.

  33. 33.

    For some examples see: Imai, Mehranvar and Sander (2007); Rights and Democracy, Human Rights Impact Assessment of Foreign Investment Projects: Learning from Community Experiences in the Philippines, Tibet, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Argentina, and Peru. 2007, http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2007/dd-rd/E84-21-2007E.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018); Halifax Initiative, Canadian Mining Map. Blog, 21 February 2007 https://miningwatch.ca/blog/2007/2/21/halifax-initiative-publishes-canadian-mining-map (last accessed 1 October 2018); McGee (2009); Walter and Martinez-Alier (2010).

  34. 34.

    Québec Superior Court, 2011 QCCS 1966, Association canadienne contre l’impunité (ACCI) c Anvil Mining Ltd, reversed Québec Court of Appeal, [2012] JQ no 368, leave to appeal to Supreme Court of Canada refused, 34733, 1 November 2012; US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Case No. 07-0016-cv, Presbyterian Church of Sudan v Talisman Energy, 2 October 2009; Québec Supreme Court, 1998 QJ no 2554 (QL), Recherches Internationales Québec v Cambior Inc; Court of Appeal for Ontario, 2011 ONCA 191, 332 DLR (4th) 118, Piedra v Copper Mesa Mining Corp, affirming Superior Court of Justice Ontario, 2010, 2421.

  35. 35.

    See: Above Ground, Transnational Lawsuits in Canada Against Extractive Companies: Developments in Civil Litigation, 1997–2016. October 2016, http://www.aboveground.ngo/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Cases_Oct2016_LO.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018); Bennett N, Wave of Foreign Lawsuits against Local Miners hits Canadian Courts: Human Rights Groups are Backing Several Claims against Firms Operating in Guatemala, Eritrea. Business in Vancouver, 19 April 2016, https://www.biv.com/article/2016/4/wave-foreign-lawsuits-against-local-miners-hits-ca/ (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  36. 36.

    Superior Court of Justice Ontario, 2011 ONSC 1414, [2011] OJ No 3417 (QL) (Ont SCJ), Choc v Hudbay Minerals Inc.

  37. 37.

    Court of Appeal for British Columbia, 2017 BCCA 401, Araya v Nevsun Resources Ltd, affirming 2016 BCSC 1856.

  38. 38.

    Court of Appeal of British Columbia, 2017 BCCA 39, Garcia v Tahoe Resources Inc, reversing Supreme Court of British Columbia, 2015 BCSC 2045, Garcia v Tahoe Resources Inc.

  39. 39.

    Tahoe on Trial, Security Footage Outside Escobal Mine. Video, 27 April 2013, https://tahoeontrial.net/2015/11/19/security-footage-april-27-2013/ (last accessed 1 October 2018).

  40. 40.

    Simons (2015), p. 3.

  41. 41.

    Canadian Centre for the Study of Resource Conflicts, Corporate Social Responsibility: Movements and Footprints of Canadian Mining and Exploration Firms in the Developing World. October 2009, http://caid.ca/CSRRep2009.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 4.

  42. 42.

    Canadian Centre for the Study of Resource Conflicts, Corporate Social Responsibility: Movements and Footprints of Canadian Mining and Exploration Firms in the Developing World. October 2009. http://caid.ca/CSRRep2009.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), pp. 6–7. The report described violations under the categories of: occupational, unlawful, unethical, human rights, environmental and community conflict.

  43. 43.

    Canadian Centre for the Study of Resource Conflicts, Corporate Social Responsibility: Movements and Footprints of Canadian Mining and Exploration Firms in the Developing World, October 2009, http://caid.ca/CSRRep2009.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 7.

  44. 44.

    Seck (2011) and Coumans (2012).

  45. 45.

    The six organizations included were from Chile, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico, Peru and the United States: see ETO Consortium, For human rights beyond borders: How to hold States accountable for extraterritorial violations, Handbook. September 2017, http://www.etoconsortium.org/nc/en/main-navigation/library/documents/detail/?tx_drblob_pi1%5BdownloadUid%5D=204 (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 42.

  46. 46.

    Working Group on Mining and Human Rights in Latin America, The impact of Canadian Mining in Latin America and Canada’s Responsibility: Executive Summary of the Report submitted to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. 2013, http://www.dplf.org/sites/default/files/report_canadian_mining_executive_summary.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), pp. 10–19.

  47. 47.

    Working Group on Mining and Human Rights in Latin America, The impact of Canadian Mining in Latin America and Canada’s Responsibility: Executive Summary of the Report submitted to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. 2013, http://www.dplf.org/sites/default/files/report_canadian_mining_executive_summary.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), pp. 10–19.

  48. 48.

    Notably, the MiningWatch study adopted a broader definition of criminalization than the JCAP Report. It defines criminalization as “the systematic manipulation of concepts of law and order – whether administrative, civil, or criminal – and the use of the punitive powers of the state and its organs of justice – whether initiated by state or non-state actors or some combination of the two – to forbid, dissuade and/or prosecute legitimate dissent that are portrayed by state/non-state actors as contrary to fundamental social values.” See Moore J, In the National Interest?: Criminalization of Land and Environment Defenders in the Americas. MiningWatch Canada, August 2015, https://miningwatch.ca/sites/default/files/inthenationalinterest_fullpaper_eng_1.pdf (v), p. 14. The study’s fifth case study is of Indigenous communities in Canada.

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    Imai S, Gardner L and Weinberger S, The “Canada Brand”: Violence and Canadian Mining Companies in Latin America. Osgoode Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17/2017, 17 December 2016, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2886584 (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 8.

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  51. 51.

    The report found a link between a Canadian mining project and violent conflict where at least two independent reports provide information or analysis that credibly establishes that the project’s presence is likely to have made a substantial contribution to violence or criminalization, Imai S, Gardner L and Weinberger S, The “Canada Brand”: Violence and Canadian Mining Companies in Latin America. Osgoode Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17/2017, 17 December 2016, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2886584 (last accessed 1 October 2018), p. 11.

  52. 52.

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  54. 54.

    Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, Business & Human Rights Defenders: Key Database Findings. February 2017 https://business-humanrights.org/en/key-findings-from-the-database-of-attacks-on-human-rights-defenders-feb-2017 (last accessed 1 October 2018). Global Witness also tracks annual incidences of violence against environmental defenders. See: Global Witness (2016).

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    MiningWatch Canada, Almost a Quarter-Million People Worldwide Join Call for Nevsun Resources Investors to Divest over Abuses at Eritrea Mine, News Release. 3 May 2017, https://miningwatch.ca/news/2017/5/3/240000-people-worldwide-join-call-nevsun-resources-investors-divest-over-abuses (last accessed 1 October 2018).

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    The International Finance Corporation’s Performance Standards on Social & Environmental Sustainability, the Voluntary Principles on Security & Human Rights, the Global Reporting Initiative and the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

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    Global Affairs Canada, Building the Canadian Advantage: A Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategy for the Canadian International Extractive Sector. March 2009, http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-accords-commerciaux/topics-domaines/other-autre/csr-strat-rse-2009.aspx?lang=eng (last accessed 1 October 2018).

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  72. 72.

    For more details on this strange provision see: Kamphuis (2012).

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.8.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 3.8. The proposed Act includes other provisions to avoid the existence of a conflict of interest between the Ombudsperson and the Canadian companies that would be subjected to the Act. The Office of the Ombudsperson would also include one or more assistants and other staff: sections 3.11–3.16.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 3.10.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 2.3, 6.1, 6.2.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 5.1.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.9, 5.1. Control is defined as owning 20% or more of the voting interests in another company, controlling 30% of the Board of Directors, control over management and policies, or control over salary levels for executives or employees at another company: s 2.2.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 6.2(i).

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    The Extractive Sector Transparency Measures Act applies to any company engaged in, or that controls another company engaged in, the commercial development of oil, gas or minerals in Canada or abroad. This Act captures companies listed on Canadian stock exchanges that have a place of business in Canada, that do business in Canada or have assets in Canada. It requires companies to report payments of a certain size made to any government or governmental body in Canada or in a foreign state: S.C. 2014, c. 39, section 376, sections 2, 8, 9.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 6.1, 6.2.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation, 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 2.5.

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    International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR); International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD); Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW); Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT); Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC); Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW); Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities (CRPD); International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (CED).

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    UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP); UN Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

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    Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169); Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (No. 87); Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98); Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29); Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105); Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138); Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182); Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100); Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111).

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    OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.

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    Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; UN Human Rights Council, Report of the Independent Expert on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, John H. Knox. Mapping report, Un Doc. A/HRC/25/53, 30 December 2013.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 13.2.

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    OECD Guidelines on Multinational Enterprises; OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High Risk Areas; OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Meaningful Stakeholder Engagement in the Extractive Sector; IFC Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability; Guidance Notes to those standards; the World Bank Group’s Environmental, Health and Safety General Guidelines; Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights; Sustainability reporting guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative; and any international Codes of Conduct, or Corporate Codes of Conduct, which the company in question has signed on to or adopted.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 6.1, 6.2. The proposed Act would not subject complaints to a limitation period and would extend a certain level of protection to complainants from civil suit in respect of their complaint: sections 4.4, 4.7.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 6.2.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 6.3.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 6.4.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 8.1. In particular the Ombudsperson would be required to consider the age, gender and health of the complainant, as well as the nature of the violence alleged, including sexual violence.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 8.2, 8.4, 8.5.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 8.9, 8.10. The Act required reasonable grounds to believe that the location contained evidence that would assist in the investigation. Upon obtaining a warrant, the Ombudsperson would have been authorized to search the location and was required to report back to the justice who had issued the warrant. The ombudsperson could have also requested a court order for an investigative interview in order to gather more information, provided that reasonable attempts have been made to obtain the information by other means: section 8.11.

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    First, it would give the Ombudsperson the power to suspend an investigation if the matter is already before a Canadian or foreign court. If the matter is in a foreign court, the Ombudsperson must be satisfied that the proceedings are independent, impartial, and not subject to delay: Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 7.1, 7.3. Second, if during an investigation the Ombudsperson believes that there is evidence of the commission of an offence against the laws of Canada or a foreign jurisdiction, they may disclose this evidence to the appropriate officials. Notably this is not required: sections 8.7, 8.8. Third, none of the information obtained in an investigative interview conducted by court order can be used in any criminal proceedings against the witness, with the exception of criminal prosecution for perjury: sections 8.14, 8.15. Fourth, upon concluding the investigation, the Ombudsperson can recommend further investigations by a separate authority: section 13.4(iv).

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 9. The Ombudsperson would be required to inform the foreign government of the planned activities and would to endeavour to enter into a mutual assistance agreement with the local authorities in the foreign state.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 12.1(iii).

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 12.1(i).

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 11.1, 11.2. The Ombudsperson may decide to pay for the legal expenses of the complainant(s) participating in mediation: section 11.5.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 11.7.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 13.12.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 13.4.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 13.4.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 13.5–13.7.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 6.8–6.10.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 6.5. A complainant can also ask for reconsideration for the refusal to investigate. The Ombudsperson would also have extensive provisions directing the Ombudsperson’s exercise of discretion to suspend an investigation where the human rights concerns have also been brought to a Canadian or foreign court: section 7.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 11.8.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), sections 13.9–13.12.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 10.

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    Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability, The Global Leadership in Business and Human Rights Act: An Act to Create an Independent Human Rights Ombudsperson for the International Extractive Sector, Draft Model Legislation. 2 November 2016, http://cnca-rcrce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/The-Global-Leadership-in-Business-and-Human-Rights-Act-An-act-to-create-an-independent-human-rights-ombudsperson-for-the-international-extractive-sector-11022016.pdf (last accessed 1 October 2018), section 10.6. A person who might be affected by the Ombudsperson’s decision to disclose otherwise confidential information in the public interest may apply to Federal Court for judicial review.

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    Further research is required to identify how Canadian administrative law principles might apply to the government’s response to the Ombudsperson’s recommendations more generally.

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    A starting point for the development of such a framework would be the Guiding Principles, UN Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework, UN Doc HR/PUB/11/04, 2011; and the Maastricht Principles, External obligations (ETOS) for human rights beyond borders, Maastricht principles on extraterritorial obligations of states in the area of economic, social and cultural rights. 2013, http://www.etoconsortium.org/en/main-navigation/library/maastricht-principles/ (last accessed 1 October 2018). The Guiding Principles have been widely endorsed by states while the Maastricht Principles are preferred by many human rights organizations. Further analysis on the substantive convergences and differences between these documents on the topic of non-judicial grievance mechanisms would be useful. For a first step toward this kind of anlaysis see Kamphuis and Gardner (2019).

  215. 215.

    Simons and Macklin (2014) and Kamphuis (2012).

  216. 216.

    Drache (2001), Augenstein and Kinley (2015) and Spiro (2013).

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Acknowledgements

This chapter was supported in part by the work of the Justice & Corporate Accountability Project (JCAP). Thank you to Lavinia Floarea and Heather Hall for research assistance and to the organizers of the 2017 Thompson Rivers University (TRU) Arts Colloquium (Canada) and the 2016 Human Rights in the Extractive Industries conference at Goethe-University (Germany) for the opportunity to discuss some of the materials presented here. This paper also benefited from conversations with Shin Imai, Ruth Buchanan and Robert Wai. Any errors are my own.

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Kamphuis, C. (2019). Building the Case for a Home-State Grievance Mechanism: Law Reform Strategies in the Canadian Resource Justice Movement. In: Feichtner, I., Krajewski, M., Roesch, R. (eds) Human Rights in the Extractive Industries. Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Rights, vol 3. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11382-7_16

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