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ARTag, AprilTag and CALTag Fiducial Systems Comparison in a Presence of Partial Rotation: Manual and Automated Approaches

Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE,volume 495)

Abstract

Fiducial marker systems have unique designs and various geometric shapes but all of them could be automatically detected with cameras. Fiducial marker system are used in such fields as augmented reality applications, medicine, space and robot-assisted tasks. A variety of applications determines criteria, which characterize qualitative properties of a marker and include such evaluation benchmarks as resilience to occlusion, distance to a marker, false positive and false negative rates, sensitivity to illumination, and others. This paper presents experimental comparison of existing ARTag, AprilTag, and CALTag systems with regard to their reliability and detection rate in occlusions of various types and intensities. Two camera types are used for experiments: inexpensive Web camera FaceCam 1000X and a high fidelity camera, which is a main vision sensor of a Russian humanoid robot AR-601M. In addition, we describe preliminary results of virtual experiments in ROS Gazebo environment. Our long term goal is to calibrate humanoid robot manipulators in real-world environment applying a pre-calibrated camera of the robot, while the presented in this paper results help selecting a most suitable marker system for further calibration procedures.

Keywords

  • Robotics
  • Camera callibration
  • Algorithm comparison
  • Experiments
  • Virtual models
  • ARTag
  • AprilTag
  • CALTag
  • Gazebo

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Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), Tatarstan Academy of Sciences and State of Israel Ministry of Science Technology and Space (project IDs 15-57-06010 and 17-48-160879). Part of the work was performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

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Correspondence to Evgeni Magid .

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Shabalina, K., Sagitov, A., Sabirova, L., Li, H., Magid, E. (2020). ARTag, AprilTag and CALTag Fiducial Systems Comparison in a Presence of Partial Rotation: Manual and Automated Approaches. In: Gusikhin, O., Madani, K. (eds) Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics . ICINCO 2017. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 495. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11292-9_27

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