Behavioral Interventions for Those Living with Dementia
Behavior disturbance in people with neurocognitive disorders is a major challenge for caregiving and quality of life. Common neuropsychiatric symptoms include sleep disturbance, aggression, anxiety, depression, and agitation. As a part of patient-centered care, individual needs of the person must be considered when attempting behavioral interventions. By reviewing the evidence regarding short- and long-term outcomes of nonpharmacological choices for behavioral interventions, care providers can make patient-centered choices. Sensory, cognitive, emotional and environmental interventions are explored in reference to major neurocognitive disorder (dementia). An emphasis is placed on the importance of caregiver education and environmental modifications.
KeywordsNeuropsychiatric symptoms Nonpharmacological interventions Sensory Environment Person-centered Dementia BPSD Behavior disturbance Behavioral disturbance
- 6.Cohen-Mansfield J, Jensen B, Resnick B, Norris M. Knowledge of and attitudes toward nonpharmacological interventions for treatment of behavior symptoms associated with dementia: a comparison of physicians, psychologists, and nurse practitioners. The Gerontologist. 2012;52(1):34–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Cooper C, Mukadam N, Katona C, Lyketsos CG, Ames D, Rabins P, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to improve quality of life of people with dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;1(1):1–15.Google Scholar
- 17.Jordan A, Hughes J, Pakresi M, Hepburn S, O’Brien JT. The utility of PAINAD in assessing pain in a UK population with severe dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26(2):118–26.Google Scholar
- 21.McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, Hyman BT, Jack CR, Kawas CH, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7(3):263–9.Google Scholar
- 24.O’Neil ME, Freeman M, Christensen V. Non-pharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms of dementia: a systematic review of the evidence, VA-ESP Project# 05–22: 2011; 2012.Google Scholar