• Lixun Wang
  • Andy Kirkpatrick
Part of the Multilingual Education book series (MULT, volume 33)


This chapter gives a brief description of the demography of Hong Kong and its linguistic ecology, along with a review of language policies which have been enacted over time. Since the return to Chinese sovereignty in 1997, Hong Kong’s language policy is for its citizens to become trilingual in Cantonese, Putonghua and English and biliterate in Chinese and English. This chapter also introduces the major research questions of the book and provides an outline of the structure of the book.


Trilingual education Biliterate education Cantonese Putonghua English Language policy Research questions Primary schools 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lixun Wang
    • 1
  • Andy Kirkpatrick
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Linguistics and Modern Language StudiesThe Education University of Hong KongTai PoHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Languages & LinguisticsGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia

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