• Steven E. BrooksEmail author


Strabismus is a term encompassing a diverse group of pathological conditions in which normal ocular alignment is disrupted. Although it is often a confusing subject for the nonspecialist clinician, it is extremely important because of the potential implications it has for vision and detection of underlying disease. The identification of strabismus should begin with a careful history and examination that includes an assessment of vision, extraocular movements, and ocular alignment. Diplopia, a key symptom in adults, is often absent in children. The presence of a habitual abnormal head posture, such as a head tilt or face turn, is highly suggestive of strabismus, particularly in children. Once detected, the clinician characterizes strabismus in terms of frequency, direction, comitance, time of onset, and whether or not it is primary or secondary. Consultation with an ophthalmologist (pediatric ophthalmologists and neuro-ophthalmologists tend to be most specialized in evaluation and management of strabismus, in children or adults) is warranted in all cases.


Strabismus Binocular vision Orthotropia Esotropia Exotropia Hypertropia/hypotropia Cyclotropia Congenital esotropia 

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Jonas Children’s Vision CareColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York-Presbyterian/Morgan Stanley Children’s HospitalNew YorkUSA

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