Classification of the Glaucomas

  • Carlos Gustavo De Moraes
  • Jeffrey Liebmann
  • George A. CioffiEmail author


Patients with open-angle glaucoma manifest a chronic, idiopathic disease associated with progressive degeneration of the anterior optic nerve, known as glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Although elevated intraocular pressure is an important causative risk factor, only about half of the three million North Americans with glaucoma will manifest elevated intraocular pressure at a single measurement. Therefore, measurement of intraocular pressure alone is a poor screening technique for glaucoma. Like most biologic parameters, eye pressure fluctuates diurnally and with other endogenous and exogenous influences, including hydration, sleep, blood pressure, and body position. With multiple measurements at different testing sessions, many, but not all of these glaucoma subjects, will eventually exhibit elevated intraocular pressure at least part of the time.


Glaucoma classification Classification of glaucomas Open-angle glaucoma Primary open-angle glaucoma Primary angle-closure glaucoma Glaucoma associated with ocular trauma Exfoliation syndrome Pseudoexfoliation syndrome Pigmentary glaucoma 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Gustavo De Moraes
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Liebmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • George A. Cioffi
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

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