Dry Eye Syndrome

  • Danielle TriefEmail author


Dry eye syndrome (DES, also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or KCS) is very common, affecting between 5% and 30% of the population. Symptoms range from occasional irritation to debilitating pain and visual compromise. Numerous studies have found that DES significantly affects patient’s quality of life. In 2015 alone, the sale of dry eye medications and devices accounted for $3.2 billion, and this is expected to grow to $4.5 billion by 2020. While it is easy to identify the symptoms associated with dry eye (foreign body sensation, grittiness, epiphora, burning, etc.), it is much more challenging to define the syndrome itself. “Dry eye” is a multifactorial and complicated condition, dependent on tear production and evaporation, inflammation of the ocular surface, and patient symptomatology.


Dry eye syndrome Keratoconjunctivitis sicca Schirmer test Tear composition assay Evaporative tear dysfunction Sjögren’s syndrome and dry eye 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

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