Orbital and Ocular Anatomy

  • Daniel S. CasperEmail author
  • Janet R. Sparrow


The eyes (“globes”) are housed in bilateral orbital cavities, two symmetric, pear-shaped depressions in the anterior mid-skull, with large openings anteriorly to permit vision, and small ones posteriorly for communication with the cranial cavity. Each orbit is formed by seven interconnected bones. Three of these are single bones that extend across the midline (frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid), shared equally by the two orbits; the other four (maxillae, zygomas, lacrimals, and palatines) are separate and duplicated, present individually on each side.


Orbital anatomy Ocular anatomy Anatomy of the eye Extraocular muscles Carotid arteries Retina anatomy Eye vasculature Eye nerves 

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyEdward S. Harkness Eye InstituteNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Naomi Berrie Diabetes CenterColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Departments of Ophthalmology and Pathology and Cell BiologyEdward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

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