Oral Signs of Tropical, Fungal, and Parasitic Diseases

  • Ricardo Pérez-Alfonzo
  • Silvio Alencar-Marques
  • Elda Giansante
  • Antonio Guzmán-Fawcett


More than 50% of the world population live in the tropics mostly in developing countries, with great poverty and poor essential goods, services, and access. These conditions and environmental factors make the population high risk for a group of fungal, bacterial, and parasitic diseases, many of which affect the oral mucosa.


Oral pathology Tropical Fungal Parasitic Candidiasis Actinomycosis Histoplasmosis Mucormycosis Paracoccidioidomycosis Blastomycosis Aspergillosis Cryptococcus Coccidioidomycosis Leishmaniasis Yaws Endemic syphilis 



The authors would like to acknowledge the valuable suggestions made by Lic. María Eugenia Gallinoto (Instituto de Biomedicina “Dr. Jacinto Convit,” Universidad Central de Venezuela) and Dr. Jacobus H. de Waard (Microbiologist Tuberculosis Department, Instituto de Biomedicina “Dr. Jacinto Convit,” Universidad Central de Venezuela).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo Pérez-Alfonzo
    • 1
  • Silvio Alencar-Marques
    • 2
  • Elda Giansante
    • 3
  • Antonio Guzmán-Fawcett
    • 4
  1. 1.Dermatologic Program, “Jacinto Convit” Institute of BiomedicineCentral University of VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and RadiotherapyBotucatu School of Medicine – São Paulo State University (UNESP)BotucatuBrazil
  3. 3.University Hospital Caracas, Central University of VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela
  4. 4.Pierre Fauchard Faculty of DentistryAutonomous University of ParaguayAsunciónParaguay

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